Sunday, June 24, 2007

Fabio Grobart The Ayatolla of Castro

The Ayatollah of Castro.
The central role of Fabio Grobart in the communist take over of Cuba.

Larry Daley Professor Emeritus, Corvallis, Oregon e-mail

“Fabio Grobart, co-founder of the Cuban (Stalinist LD) Communist Party in 1925;member of the Central Committee; chairman of the Institute for the Study of Marxist-Leninist Movement in Cuba; Hero of the Cuban Revolution” As of 1944 “The Party dominates the Cuban Confederation of Labor. Among Party leaders, Fabio Grobart (alias Abraham Sinovich), the Instructor-General of the Cuban Communist Party, and Blas Roca, Secretary-General, were trained in Moscow. … It is evident that the Soviet government placed a high value on establishing diplomatic relations with Cuba, for Dr. Concheso, (21) first Cuban diplomat accredited to Moscow, was personally received by Marshal Stalin. It was Dr. Concheso's belief that he was the only foreign diplomat other than the American and British Ambassadors to whom Stalin had accorded this distinction. By conduct of Concheso sealed letters were exchanged between Stalin and President Batista.“ Szulc (apparently using Fabio Grobart as a/the source) describes the evolution of Castro’s hidden government developed first with consultation and or direction by Fabio Grobart starting in the first months of 1959. “Castro held most of these clandestine encounters at a hill top house in the fishing village of Cojima, some ten miles east of Havana…”

Abstract: Some view the communist control of Cuba as accidental and not planned, others diminish the role of Fabio Grobart in Cuba. The data presented in this paper is not consistent with these conclusions, and this analysis strongly suggests Grobart played a far greater more deliberate role in Cuban history than these academics accept. However, one needs to keep in mind that much that the Stalinist Cuban communist claim to have done prior to Castro is commonly wildly inflated. One thing seems clear, the statist marxist economic theory was long planned by Grobart, adopted from the original Russian plans, and then imposed on Cuba by Grobart’s final champion Castro.

The resulting economic model, despite its enormous human cost, has failed to provide benefit to the general population of the Island. Yet, such a model only persists in Cuba but is in process of being implemented in other Latin American countries. This is because primarily this “grobartian” government was/is applied, not to better the well being of the Cubans but to use Cuba as a Stalinist military base to ruthlessly seek by all means a global “communist” utopia.

The Castro cult of personality infers that his personal brilliance made advisors unnecessary; but this is obviously absurd. Review of Fabio Grobart’s life time career suggests that he was Castro’s principal adviser and mentor, and that he was a major éminence grise of Cuban history in much of the 20th Century. Grobart as much as anyone else guided Fidel Castro through his ascent to power; and he was a principal advisor to Castro’s government in the take over of the Cuban economy.

Since in Latin America others move to emulate Grobart’s advice, and the human disaster of Cuba seems destined to be repeated. Thus, it seems useful and prophylactic to examine the life career of “Fabio Grobart” a principal “social engineer” greatly responsible for erecting the present disastrous Cuban economy.

Introduction: “Fabio Grobart” was primary figure, among the cohorts of alien ghosts who over long years ruthlessly manipulated Cuban lives and destinies. Perhaps no history of such will ever be complete, not even when the present Cuban government falls and their archives, if they survive, come to light of day. Thus, in these circumstances no present evaluation can be completely accurate or even free from errors of omission and comprehension, and yet to aid the better future of a free Cuba it necessary to assemble a much data as possible and through this understand what we know now of such personages and their influence.

Table 1. Outline of Major Events in Fabio Grobart's life Grobart went in out of Cuba many times for instance he can be placed in Cuba in April 1937- May 1938 ,- 1943 and December, of 1969

Born Poland August 30, 1905
Flees Poland (circa 1922)
Arrival in Cuba (circa 1922-1924 )
Founding of the (Stalinist) Cuban Communist Party (1925) in collaboration with Julio Antonio Mella, close friend Ruben Martinez Villena and 14 others
Assassination of Julio Antonio Mella who had been flirting with Trotskyites 10 January 1929

Expelled from Cuba by Gerardo Machado Government (trial dated circa 1926, expelled from Cuba 1930 and/or October 1 1932 with Dora Vainstock. Dora returns with false passport in March 1933)
Grobart goes to Berlin but leaves for Moscow after Reichtag Fire of February 27, 1933.
Approves alliance with Machado government August 1933 (see Grobart 1975)
Grobart is seen in Cuba January 29th 1934 at Mella’s wake.
Antonio Guiteras Holmes who had at least overtly resisted belonging to the overt communist party is killed by Batista forces May 8, 1935
Grobart is recruiting for the communist party in Pinar del Rio in the 1930s
Grobart organizes Cuban recruits to the fight for the Spanish Republic (April 1938-May 1939)
Communist party was made legal in September. 1938 January 1939 communist party, and presumable Grobart, formally supports Batista
Grobart publicly justifies Ribbentrop-Molotov pact (some time after August 23, 1939) and the Cuban communists agree or defect from that party.
Trotsky (Leon Davidovich Bronstein) is assassinated in Mexico August 21, 1940. His assassin Jaume Ramon Mercader del Rio Hernández, was son of another Stalinist agent Eustacia María Caridad del Río, who was born in Cuba. Ramon Mercader when released went to live an honored retirement in Castro ruled Cuba
During alliance with Fulgencio Batista Government (circa 1939-1940), the long term rivalry between Stalinist communists directed by Grobart and rival Trotskyites reaches a peak with the murder of Sandalio Junco a communist who defected to trotskyism May 8, 1941.

Expulsion of Grobart by Carlos Prío Government (1950)

Residence in eastern block 1950-1959 (possibly still directing Castro’s actions in Cuba)
Return to Cuba to support Fidel Castro directly (March 1959)

Supports Castro in internal struggle of microfaction (middle and late 1960s)
Dies in Cuba October 22, 1994 (García, 2005)

Grobart’s life work was shrouded in secrecy, and his official vitae is more hagiography than objective record of reality. Grobart’s own words are frequently disingenuous and misleading, illustrating the difficulties and uncertainties inherent in this study. Cuban government records that predate present regime either have been destroyed or are held far from the public eye. Available records from US agencies charged with tracking him and his work are scanty. Those who have mentioned Grobart in the media agree he was a communist. Memories of those who knew of him are also scattered and perhaps not completely reliable. Some of what follows is modified from a chapter of my work in progress “Narrations of War in Cuba. ”

After victory over the dictator Batista, democracy is not restored. Labor unions are freed from communists who had gained control under this regime and then fall again, as was a hallmark of Grobert’s directions in his early years in Cuba, into the hands of the communist party. In my view, although others disagree, the communist party that followed the defeat of Batista was the same as before, since what happened afterwards was merely yet another series of purges, Grobart was still a major influence, controlling both the old overt party and the suddenly emerging covert communist operatives. The Cuban economy falls progressively into Castro’s hands. Castro consolidates his power by all possible means and increasingly rejected democracy to become increasingly more and more powerful. Many among the anti-Batista rebel fighters are purged, and replaced with a far more numerous, 250,000 communist controlled militia. Castro now relies on the Soviets for advisers and support. Principal among these advisors is Fabio Grobart, others include Alberto Bayo who was in Cuba by April 1959, Francisco Ciutat de Miguel, and Enrique Lister.

Soon after Castro took power government spies organized by East European experts were watching every block and everybody . Former rebels were in jail, dying violently or defecting. Yet the process towards communism did not stop. Even non-communist marxists rebels left the scene.

Soon the media is throttled, on March 31, 1960 CMQ the premier Cuban TV station is seized by the government. By the end of May 1960, almost all media is in the hands of the Castro government, the last were the pro-Catholic daily Diario de la Marina and the independent Prensa Libre, Cuba's largest newspapers were seized. No longer inside Cuba was there any serious source of news independent of the government. Some listened to CIA funded Radio Swan broadcasting from an island off Honduras. Blinded and out maneuvered the resistance to Castro is crushed.

Grobart’s early years: '''Fabio (also Favio ) Grobart''' (also Antonio Blanco, Fabio or Abraham Grovar, Yunger (or Junger) Simjovich, or Aaron Simkovitch (Sinkovich ) apparently taken from the town of the same name; Otto Modley or Movely ), Aaron Sinkovick, Abraham Simcowiz (Sinckowitz ), José Micheló or José (or Fabio ) Michelón ) is said was born in Trzciany Shtetl, near Bialystok, Poland in 1905; his birth name was Avreml (Abraham ) Simjovitch. Fabio of course is a classic reference to the Roman Consul and stealthy guerrilla tactician Fabius Maximus, and thus by derivation to marxist influenced Fabian socialism. Fabio is a common name among Cuban communists, for instance, high Castro intelligence official General Fabio (or Fabián) Escalante (son, or apparent pseudonym, of Cesar Escalante). Grobari is said to mean gravedigger or undertaker in Serbian. He was a small polite man, with pale eyes hidden behind thick glasses who spoke Spanish slowly and well but with a distinctly slow French r. Obviously by his actions and advice he exercised great power within the Cuban communist power structure, since he is said by those to who knew him to have a bad temper, and to never forgive a concession to the “enemy.”

Grobart’s importance in founding the Cuban (Stalinist) communist party was recognized by Fidel Castro and Jewish-Historians such as Moisés Asís, who states “By 1925, there were 8,000 Jews in Cuba (some 2,700 sephardic, 5,200 ashkenazic, and 100 Americans). Four ashkenazic Jews were in the small group that founded the first Communist Party of Cuba in 1925: Grimberg, Vasserman, Simjovich aka Grobart, and Gurbich. They opposed the religious and community life of the other Jews;” No mention is made of Jewish communist Noske Yalob said thrown to the sharks by Machado porristas in 1928, as a founder of the party. This conflict between business and communists is also mention by Sánchez Porro, 1996 (see footnotes and references). However, a friend writes: “In depth discussions of this topic are found in the PhD thesis of by Margalit Bejarano.” In addition, it seems clear that for Grobart, communism not judeism was his religion.

Actually the first marxist socialist party (and communists still consider themselves socialists) was far earlier, and as is discussed below. However, aside from personal testimony we do not know if Grobart was really ethnically a Jew, certainly he was neither a Zionist nor a religious Jew, for such is shadowy nature of such agents. Grobart apparently never openly criticized Stalin’s persecution of the Jews, and was a known scoffer of Jewish religious practices. Apparently this anti-Israeli attitude continued for the rest of Grobart’s life since he either supported or avoided conflict with Castro’s foreign policy in this regard. Of course such would have been most dangerous for him, especially considering how fellow communist Jews such as Grobart’s colleague/rival in Caribbean communist activities, Otto Katz, Otto Sling a colleague of Katz and USSR Prime Minister Rudolf Slansky, were executed on Stalin’s orders in 1951.

Modifying the historical record to aid control by a central government has been done for thousands of years, since at least the times of Pharaoh Ramses II. More recently times, George Orwell (1949) wrote:

And if all others accepted the lie which the Party imposed—if all records told the same tale—then the lie passed into history and became truth. “Who controls the past” ran the Party slogan, “controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.”

Contemporary Cuban government histories, as has been long common to histories influenced communist governments, are part truth, part lies and in great part, distortions of actual facts. The official Cuban Communist Party journal ” Cuba Socialista,” also founded by the Grobart and other such publications state that Grobert left Poland after joining the Communist Youth League, and for this reason was condemned to death. His first job in Cuba was as a tailors’ assistant and rapidly became active in Cuban Unions. At one time he is said to have owned a tailor shop in Havana. Directed to do so by the Cuban communist party he funded the corresponding communist youth league.

Grobart’s spy craft was careful and elegant for instance he used singer Zoila Galvez mentioned in footnote 33 ( pages 211-212) of the Bejarano thesis (who according to Juan Vives ) was the wife of Juan Andreu the secretary of Grobart. Andreu (according to Vives same page) often used to transport Grobart's secret messages while traveling with Zoila Galvez. His infiltration methods followed the Chinese model described above. Grobart’s purges were murderous but precise (see table 2).

Apparently, although it is difficult to document, Grobart selected as series of potential leaders for his planned Cuban communist take over since the late 1920. These leaders probably but not certainly included Julio Antonio Mella, Antonio Guiteras and Fidel Castro’s long standing rival Rolando Masferrer Rojas. I seems plausible that when these leaders deviated from Grobart’s master plant they were eliminated in diverse ways. Castro's first recruitment as a communist, is attributed to Grobart, by Vives, Raul del Mazo Serra, Dates of this recruitment are not precise suggesting a slow process that was initiated between 1944 and 1948. However, his recruitment of the Castro brothers was his master achievement, and the means of his greatest horrors. His disciples became the Yaqui, the murderous Aztec priests-of-human-sacrifice, that have bloodied Cuba since the 1920s. What ever the details Fabio Grobart is commonly viewed by his followers in Cuba as “the teacher,” the guide and perhaps the ideological and technical guide, the Ayatollah of Castro.

Grobart’s proven allegiance was to Stalin, despite Stalin’s hatred of Jews. Evidence has been presented to link Grobart to the Leon Trotsky (a fellow Jew) assassination, and less strong evidence to the Julio Antonio Mella assassination. Links to Cuban communists in the Mella murder matter have resurfaced in recent years even among communists and former communists and naturally these links have been strongly denied by that orthodoxy, paradoxically giving that hypothesis even greater strength. In later years Grobart apparently never objected to the Cuban government's "negative attitude toward religion, Zionism and Israel… ." Grobart had a least one son Fabio Grobart Sunshine, who was raised as a communist, and apparently still is. Linkage of Grobart to Felix Yersyinski (better known as Felix Dzerzhinsky, founder of what became KGB) has been proposed based on Grobart’s actions, and their common politics and national origin.

Grobart was apparently following orders of the Comintern or perhaps the Soviet Secret Police (then the Cheka later the KGB) of which he is said by some to be cofounder with Felix Edmandovich Dzerzhinky. Grobart moved to Cuba during the early 1920s (probably 1922 ); he became a founding member of the Cuban Communist Party (Stalinist), in 1925, "and for decades served as a party ideologue and the man who introduced Castro at party meetings.” Although the party Grobart helped found was not the first Cuban communist party, it is considered as such by the present Cuban government. Meetings were said held in a restaurant-safe-house on Compostela Street number 687 (old numbers usually taken from 1958 Havana Phone), at the corner of Luz Street in Havana. One notes that this place is not far from El Hotel (Café) Ambos Mundos 165 Obispo Street, and other places where Ernest Hemingway used to hang out and also the docks and from Zulueta 37 the Labor Anarchist headquarters.

The first well known Cuba related communist was Pablo Lafargue, born in Santiago de Cuba in 1847. Lafargue went to Europe, became a disciple of Karl Marx, married one of Marx’s daughters, was a very important member of the Socialist Internationals, and helped found the French Workers Party in 1882. Lafargue and his wife committed suicide by drowning themselves in the Seine River. The original Cuban Communist Party seems to have arisen at the very end of the 19th Century , as the Cuban Socialist Party particularly in the eastern town of Manzanillo, but that is all minimized now. For instance Niquero is not far from Manzanillo, and near the western part of the Sierra Maestra, close to where Castro would land in 1956. In this regard one can note the apparent contradictory emphasis by the same Cuban government authors placed on the web in separate regional notes about Niquero. The first note mentions the founding of the local Niquero Cuban communist party in the 1920s which by necessity must have involved Stalinist agent Grobart and the second the presence of early Cuban communist Agustín Martín Veloz from Manzanillo, far earlier during the 1912 strike in that same place.

This apparent conflict is resolved when one realizes that in present day Cuba, the government has evolved out of the Stalinist roots planted and nurtured by Grobart. All other variants of communism were stamped out in a long process. Thus, it is common in official Cuban documentation, and the writings of its foreign supporters to state that Cuban communist party took over from what they called the “anarcho-syndicalists” and went on to support workers rights, and nationalist values. In reality, under the guidance of Fabio Grobart the Cuban communists operated to promote Soviet goals. As soon as this became clear the Cuban communists were unable to sustain a popular base and sought support and collaboration with dictators Machado and Batista; and eventually (as one will see below) aborted attempts at democracy and coalesced around the heavily purged rebel forces of Fidel Castro, who it seems had already been recruited by Grobart and his allies in the 1940s.

During the Cuban Republic, in 1925, at the beginning of Machado’s legal term, Abraham Semjovitch, code name Fabio Grobart a Kremlin Agent helped make formal links between the Cuban Communist Party and the Communist International PCC. Although it is public record that Gerard Machado would turn to the communist party for support, officially Grobart was arrested and deported by Machado officials and did not return until this President, turned dictator, fell from power. BTW Walker Evans has an amazing photograph of a 1930s Machado informer of ‘’la Porra,’’ standing in his most elegant white suit watching for the resistance.

In the 1940’s Rogelio Recio Ramírez, leader of the ephemeral 1933 Mabay Workers Soviet develops the first secret cells of what will become the Sierra Maestra covert communist party. These cells engage in agi-prop in these mountains among the Guajiros and Montunos. There are other communists such as Ruben Castillo Ramos , watching activities in these mountains , others such as Manuel Brizuela and Antonio Nuñez Jimenez, learning the layout of this area in nearby towns and cities. When Castro takes to the mountains in 1956-1958 these communists and the mountain super-secret cells, do very little fighting, but provide logistic support and information to the pro-Communist factions especially to Ernesto Che Guevara (Guevara, Ernesto Che and Waters, (editor) 1996). These cells also work to oppose the non-Communist rebel factions of Frank País /pdf/SWEINS excerpt.pd and Huber Matos /CNews/y04/mar04/30o5.htm (Matos, 2002). All this relates to weapon supply to Castro in the Sierra, via Frank Sturgis (putative agent of the CIA and "burglar" in Watergate), José Figueres (past President of Costa Rica) , and the Caribbean Legion (Ameringer, 1995) .

According to Aguilar, (who uses Grobart as one among seemingly all communists sources for this) there was a 1927 trial of communists in Cuba accused by Peruvian diplomats of plotting the overthrow of Machado, in coordination with Peruvian writer Serafín Delmar; none were found guilty but all foreigners said involved were expelled. Although Aguilar refers to the Cuban government as a regime, Machado elected in 1924, was a constitutional president at the time; although next year Machado would take steps towards dictatorship. Apparently Grobart, had been posing as a Spanish Gallego, rather than a Polish-Galician, under the odd name of Otto Modley, and was expelled from Cuba in 1930, according to communist Spanish Gallician. Tennant, a Trotskyite who believes that Grobart was a mere immigrant, places him in Moscow in the early 1930’s. There Grobart would most probably be in the company of his long time associate and Cuban communist party leader, Rubén Martínez Villena, who was being treated unsuccessfully for tuberculosis in Moscow. There they both most probably attended the 12th conference of the E.C.C.I in 1932. Grobart is in Cuba in September 1933, February 1934 and September 1935; he is arrested in 1936 under false name serves six months and is released.

Oddly enough, Salvador Díaz-Versón (1970) dates the/a Grobart’s arrest (under the name of Aaron Sinckowitz) as August 26, 1926; however this author dates a, perhaps another, Grobart expulsion along with Dora Vainstock (Weinstock?) and other communists as October 1, 1932 on the Holland American Line steamer Leersdam, on route to Holland. However, Dora who dispensed her favors widely was a lover of the son of Machado’s Presidencial secretary . Soon through Dora’s influence; Dora, Fabio and their “friends” with false Cuban passports, were back in Cuba by March 1933. The communist leadership in Cuba first supported and then betrayed a spreading general strike that started on July 25th 1933 among bus and tram workers, which by August 4th 1933 controlled Havana and by August 9th controlled the whole Island, by August 10th Machado resigned.

In the almost absolute lack of public information on this period of Grobart’s life, one must entertain at least some speculation. For instance, one can speculate that at this time in Cuba Grobart is replaced by orders from Otto Katz. Katz, who often said he was once married to that beautiful sexual-omnivore Marlene Dietrich; and he fathered a child (Maria Riva? ) with her, was sometimes considered a “Mexican” specialist; and thus most probably, at least for a while, took over as Kremlin agent in Cuba at least for a while. Katz, a colleague/rival Stalinist Latin American spymaster to Grobart, was purged by Stalin in 1952. Katz, even more speculatively might have had strong influence over the influential Cuban revolutionary Antonio Guiteras Holmes. During the Machado dictatorship many begin to struggle against him: old independence fighters in Rio Verde land in Oriente and fail in August 1931. Blas Hernández with his guerrillas stay active especially in the middle provinces. Guiteras is fighting Machado, especially in Oriente at Saint Luis, and plans to attack Bayamo. Guiteras, judging by present Cuban government sanctioned reports which have an unfortunate habit of “adopting the dead” and thus cannot be considered reliable. However, if his statements are reported accurately, Guiteras was a communist by the criteria used in this paper.

Aguilera states that on November, 10th 1930 there was a protest against Machado by the Directorio Estudiantil (Student Directory) at Havana University, and a student Rafael Trejo is wounded by police and dies next day. Apparently the police knew what was going to happened since they were informed by student infiltrator José Soler Lezama, who was successively a member of the Cuban Directorate, the Communist Party (presumably no longer under the orders or the influence of Grobart L.D.), and the ABC party. The next day the Machado regime declares these university groups follow orders from Moscow (and thus again under orders from such as Grobart or Otto Katz L.D.). Soler was executed by the Directorio Estudiantil during the violent September of 1933. However, Aguilera makes clear most of Cuban society, with the possible exception of the general Black population and rural dwellers, including the conservative Diario de la Marina and the Conservative party are against Machado. The communist party was fighting with all other anti-Machado groups, as well as Machado and expelling all those who disagreed ideologically. Then, suddenly the communist party reaches an agreement with Machado offering support in exchange for recognition. However, Machado falls anyway under pressure from the U.S. and Cuban army officers. The communists are disgraced.

Guiteras rises in power in the new Pentarquía junta, which has already replaced the old Mambí of the transitional government of Carlos Manuel de Cespedés, a military officer son of the first Cuban president in arm, first leader of the persistent but finally defeated Cuban forces of the Ten Years War for Independence. Guiteras is quoted as saying: “The government will inaugurate a socialist policy… . This is another step against the bourgeoisie… .The distribution of 10,000 caballerías of land among the peasants hill not imply living them title to property but only the usufruct of the land. We will avoid the creation of a rural bourgeoisie, the famous kulaks so fiercely attacked by the Soviets. We will try to create cooperative farms instead.” If this quote is accurate and representative it shows not only a communist view of the world but an orthodox Stalinist world view; and thus suggests a Katz-Guiteras link. Official Cuban government biographies of Guiteras talk, apparently remorsefully, in their obscure ideological jargon, about the matter of divisions within the communist groups: ““...Su desencuentro político con los principales cuadros del primer partido comunista, solo puede entenderse como consecuencia del adverso y contradictorio escenario de entonces,…””. Of course the communists, who claim him as a precursor, have a traditionally difficulty dichotomy in facing up to the indisputable role that Guiteras, as Minister of the Interior ordering the action, played in the bloody break up of the communist demonstration and riot over Julio Antonio Mella’s ashes. However, Guiteras must have known that it is widely believed that communists’ were at very least responsible for killing Mella in Mexico, for these Stalinists were said to fear Mella had become a Trotskyite ; this too can be taken to suggest that Guiteras was part of such or similar faction of the extreme left. Guiteras’ demand’s for further executions at Atares and Hotel Nacional in 1933 (do not have references at hand), as well as his plots to kill his rival Batista, are consistent with the violence and a willingness to kill that characterize a “well trained” agent. As is common knowledge, in 1935 Batista “got” Guiteras first.

One can logically postulate that Guiteras was a model for Fidel Castro, as Cuban government sources do, and even go further and postulate that Guiteras was recruited as a cover agent by some master Soviet agent such as Otto Katz, as Castro seems to have been by Grobart (see below). However, to be useful such “conspiracy” theories must not only explain the past but to be true theories, e.g. they must have predictive value in modeling future events.

In 1933 the Cuban communist party, trying to recover from its support of Machado began confused agit-prop actions including brief establishment of “soviets” taking over some sugar mills. Although communications to the contrary have been reported, Aguilera states that the communists opposed Batista’s September 4th 1933, coup. It is not clear what role Grobart who apparently was still overseas had in this. Despite all of this the communists were able not only to dominate the Cuban labor unions from 1939 to 1946 but also collaborated with Batista to the point of being part of his cabinet. The decision of the communist party to collaborate with Batista was apparently made in Moscow, and thus by necessity was communicated via the highest level Stalinist agent in Cuba almost certainly Grobart, although the early process could have involved Otto Katz (who was in Spain for early part of that Civil War, having control of ship traffic probably readily returned to Mexico and the US to assume positions in Mexico of some importance ).

Also during the period leading to WWII, remnants of militants from the sugar mill “soviets,” and communist Spanish exiles took refuge in the Sierra Maestra. Later indigenous Cuban communists showed interest in scouting and geography in these same mountains.

Anarchist Dolgoff writes “…January 1940, the Comintern sent representatives to purge and Stalinize the Cuban Communist Party.” Then, some time before 1943, Grobart resumed union activities during Fulgencio Batista’s period (1940-1944) of Constitutional power. During this time by virtue of his position, Grobart must have been part of the Cuban communist party’s authorization for the 1942 assassination of Sandalio Junco, a who had collaborated with Julio Antonio Mella in Mexico and Trotskyite heretic to Grobart’s orthodox stalinist faith; and also a deviant from Grobart’s plans for economic change in Cuba. Despite efforts of Fabio Grobart, the then politically attractive and tested military leader Rolando Masferrer leaves the overt communist party in 1945.

Fidel Castro, it seems, had long, at least since 1948, been in contact with communist party members, especially from the Cuban Communist Youth organization that had been founded Fabio Grobart. It has been claimed that Grobart directly recruited Fidel Castro as an agent in 1948. Diaz-Verson suggests that 1943 is the earliest time in the uncertain period in which Fidel Castro was recruited by Soviet Agent Gumer W. Bashirov, who spoke Spanish fluently and lived outside of the Soviet Embassy. Gumar Bashirovich Bashirov is the name of a Tatar novelist member of a kolkhoz a collective farm, presumable such a status would make Gumar Bashirov a communist party official, I do not know if these two are the same individual, since this Bashirov was a contemporary of Gorky; however, he only would be about 42 in 1943, and is listed as having received the USSR State Prize in 1951.

Around this time Gorbart may very well be the Latin America operative which Eudocio Ravines, refers to as Pierre Austin. Ravines has been criticized because of apparent chronological inconstancies with the timing of Mao Zedong’s known visits to Moscow. However, now it is understood that Mao’s circumstances and thus his mobility during the “Long March” were not as rigorous as formerly understood, and a simple chronological error on part of the critic, author, translator or editor can readily explain this; thus this criticism of the Ravines’ book appears far less strong. Ravines writes that in 1930 “Pierre” then his advisor in the South American Bureau, was head of a delegation sent by the Comintern. “Pierre” is placed in 1937 Valencia during the Spanish Civil War with a retinue of armed men. Apparently just prior to WWII “Pierre” is placed in Brazil (see also Azambuja 2004). “Pierre’s” accent in Spanish is said to be Brazilian Grobart’s is said peculiar and slow; “Pierre” is described as of Russian stock (not a problem in Eastern Poland, a since one could readily imagine that Grobart’s putative Jewish roots would be kept quiet at that time because of the Trotsky-Stalin feud) and being 12 in 1917, that would make him 16 or 17 (rather than 19 in 1922 ). This would almost certainly make him “one of the youngest men in the Comintern ” at the time as was Grobart as founder of the Cuban Stalinist Communist Party. Otto Katz (aka Rudolf Breda, André Simone) was dark of medium height a Sudeten German born and raised in Prague, a description not fitting Grobart, who was small and had pale eyes. While the description of “Pierre” as the eyes and ears of the Kremlin, also fits most descriptions of Grobart’s activities. However, Ravines’ places “Pierre” in Santiago de Chile and Buenos Aires, as well as in Valencia in Civil War Spain and Brazil (see above) would be novel for available material on Grobart. Thus “Pierre” seems to be an analogue, but not the same persona, as Grobart.

A somewhat more dubious placing of Grobart is in 1939 under the alias of Otto Ott, a supposed German operative. It might seems possible that "Fabio Grobart" operated as the "dwarf/midget Nazi" spy Otto Ott, said owner of the Swiss Home Restaurant (see also discussion on Lily Bar Avenida Acosta 269 below), in the context of the "St. Louis" tragic voyage. It is world wide common place that a restaurant-bar can be a cover for prostitution, and such are often used by intelligence services. Although Ribbentrop-Molotov pact was signed formally August 19th 1938, but negotiations were hinted at by Stalin on March 10th 1939, then communists and Nazi's coordinated their espionage activities. Other reasons for this suspicion include the consideration that Grobart had a passport and was once expelled from Cuba under the name of Otto Modley. German spies were working in Havana in the early years of WWII. However, Gorbart was quite short a Cuban government photo shows him very much smaller than Castro (6' 1") or so thus to a tall person he would be or technically since his proportions were “normal” midget-like and it is difficult to imagine such a Nazi spy or even working for Admiral Canaris (BTW Otto Katz was too tall for this role). This Otto Ott may also have frequented the Carreño building where many Spanish Republicans (often communists) hung out. Then it seems Otto Ott disappeared from Cuba and judging by google searches from the face of the earth although apparently a place of ill repute called “Burdel de Otto” survived at least until 1959. This “Bayu de Otto” was probably the Lily Bar, a dangerous place of ill repute. Yet “The news in Dos Yidishe Wort was written by persons who knew Grobart very well (as Avreml Simjovich). Grobart spoke in public defending the pact with Ribbentrop.” “(The Bejarano thesis) It says (in Hebrew) that in 1933 an antisemitic group took control of the Hungarian Club of Havana (at Teniente Rey 41) and decided to expell all the Jewish members. Together with the Jews was also expelled Otto Ott, owner of a restaurant in Acosta street, who tried to oppose the antisemitic group. (Dos Yidishe Wort 7 June 1933 p. 1, 5 July 1933 p. 1) During the St. Louis affair Ott is mentioned as owner of a Swiss restaurant that was a meeting point for Nazi agents (Voyage of the Damned, p. 34 (and others LD)).” Then Fabio Grobart had survived Stalin's purges, while Otto Katz (far more linked to Jewish intellectuals) was hanged after a Stalin era show trial in 1952.

According to official Cuban government history, since his lungs were weak and his life was again threatened in the 1950s when he left for Eastern Europe to spend time between Budapest, Prague and Vienna. In 1952, under the name Albert Blanco he was co-delegate with Carlos Palacio a Spaniard for Latin America in the very leftist labor union Federación Sindical Mundial (FSM). The circumstance of a Pole and a Spaniard being delegates for Latin America is not commented on in this piece. Recently elected incoming Cuban president Carlos Prío Socarrás, as the previous president Ramón Grau San Martín, were both was strongly anticommunist. According to Boris Kozolchyk, Grobart’s blunders were at least partially responsible for the outlawing of the Cuban Communist Party in 1948, and resulted in his deportation that same time or smuggled out on a Soviet vessel in 1950. Soon Grobart is not listed publicly as a Cuban communist party leader.

Grobart when Castro was in the mountains: Observations on communists in the Sierra Maestra, and other places were made by a number of people; however, with exception of Raul Castro, Ernesto Guevara, and Aldo Santamaría Cuadrado, and some visits by high ranking PSP party officials they were mainly low ranking members more dangerous to other rebels than to the Batista troops. Grobart was out of country; however, his influence was felt. Otto Meruelo Baldarraín was a writer who had been a communist or associated with communists, at an earlier time and later after 1952 became a propagandist for Batista. In the 1950s most discounted Meruelo’s media attacks on Fidel Castro in the Sierra Maestra as mere Batista propaganda; however, the virulence of Castro's verbal attacks on Meruelo before and after victory, plus his 30 year sentence meted out by a Che Guevara tribunal suggest that he was considered a danger to the new regime. The readily acceptable rational is that Castro knew that Meruelo was aware that he (Fidel Castro) had been recruited by the communist party early in his political life and feared that Meruelo's media pronouncements would "out him." Ángel Velázquez who Meruelo cites as a source of this information probably was one those rebels who fled the Che Guevara's first purges in the Sierra. Meruelo recanted, returning to the communist “faith,” he was released early and died years ago.

Grobart after Castro’s victory: After victory in 1959 Ernesto Che Guevara and Raul Castro met “Alberto Blanco” in Prague and brought him back to Cuba. The communist newspaper Hoy is said again published on the January 6 th 1959 even before Castro reaches Havana on the 8th. Carbonell, quoting Vives, places Grobart's reappearance in Cuba as early as March 3rd 1959. The secret files of the BRAC (Buró de Represión de Actividades Comunistas) are now in the “Che” Guevara’s hands and he is said to have destroyed them, (but I do not believe that L.D.); and exiled communists start to return immediately. However, Grobart’s activities were apparently on BRAC files. Capitán José J. Castaño Quevedo who had been in charge of the BRAC for only about two days or so was arrested; old communist Anibal Escalante . among others gave false testimony; and Captain Castaño was executed. Soon anybody known to have information on Castro’s communist links was dead, exiled or in jail. That year Grobart meets with Castro apparently in the very same villa, that I describe in Cojímar, in my book in progress; then I already began fearing communist take over, but knowing nothing of Grobart, but merely that something very secret was going on and I was forbidden to visit that place.

In 1962, Grobart is considered to be important and significant; and yet in 1965 he is merely listed in the then secret CIA files as a member of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces and State Security Committee. However, through the years it has become apparent that Grobart was then much more since he was both a member of the Cuban Communist Party Central Committee and a member of Castro’s puppet Parliament. Fabio Grobart was long considered “… maybe the highest ranking representative of the Third International in Cuba in that moment.” In 2005 Raul Castro’s words lead Cuban communist authorities in honors and praise to ”maestro” Grobart, giving his status as such as well as the official imprimatur of “marxist sainthood.”

Table 2. Prominent assassinations considered linked to Fabio Grobart. Until the present Cuban circumstances remain the links between Grobart and these deaths often seem tenuous and sometimes merely speculative; yet by necessity due to the communist party’s structure these acts involve collectively coerced decisions that diffuse responsibility. However, while Grobart was alive and active his level of leadership make his responsibility obvious, There are quite a number of such “actions,” and the lack of direct links can well be considered both a result of a cult of secrecy and a mark of adroit spy-craft and skilled spy masters of Stalinist style as shown by recent unrelated events on the world scene, where denial and scapegoats characterize the aftermath of these events. What can be affirmed is that indulgence in ideological heresies such as Trotskyism was not healthy for former Grobart’s associates.

Name place date putative method Female involvement
Julio Antonio Mella Mexico 1928 direct action Tina Modotti
Antonio Guiteras Holmes Cuba 1935 betrayal Xiomara O’Hallorans, and others
Trotsky (Leon Davidovich Bronstein) Mexico 1940 Direct action Assassin son of another Stalinist agent Eustacia María Caridad del Río who was born in Cuba (see text).
Sandalio Junco Cuba 1942 direct action
Humbolt 7 Havana 1956 betrayal “Marquito” Homosexual Marcos Rodríguez Alfonso (see also text)
Ernesto “Che” Guevara Bolivia 1967 betrayal Haydee Tamara Bunke Bider (Tania)
Rolando Masferrer Rojas Miami 1975 indirect action

Juan Vivés Ardisson, (a pseudonym ) is another complex character who apparently moved quietly in the shadows. In his book, Vivés presents himself as a 14 year old, who joined the ranks of the rebellion against Batista late in that war, but became a member of the elite “suicide” assault group of the Che Guevara during the final days of the assaults on Santa Clara. Yet there are a number of inconsistencies in Vivés account, especially his description of having fought in places that might have been too distant from each other to have been readily feasible. Vivés account of taking a Browning submachine gun (in reality a Thompson, such a “Browning sub-machine gun” was captured by Batista forces after the 1953 Moncada assault 1953. ) from Rolando Cubela is subject to serious question, since Cubela used an M-3. The M-3, unlike a Thompson, is a more up to date, less heavy and very distinctly different looking submachine gun. It is also not very logical that Cubela would have allowed him to keep the weapon, even under pressure from Guevara. However, there is a photograph in Bohemia of a suicide squad member with a Thompson submachine gun who resembles a young Vivés. An alternative explanation suggests that Vivés in reality was with Félix Torres González a murderous leader of a communist rebel group, and the Thompson was provided to, this up to then poorly armed group, by Camilo Cienfuegos who was under Fidel Castro’s orders to do so. Chronological inferences suggest that these were weapons captured from Batista forces probable from actions around at October 30, 1958 (Cuartel Venegas).

Yet, Grobart reached Cuba and soon was playing an important, though generally undocumented, role in guiding the political leadership of Cuba's 1959 Revolution along a communist route and was present at the highest level secret meetings. By November of 1959 he was in a position to assure Castro that the KGB would send an important Soviet official, who turned out to be Anastas Mikoyan. He directed “Cuba Socialista” and was top planner guiding orthodox communist ideology and almost certainly strongly influences Castro’s strategic plans. Grobart, was reported to be using the alias, José Blanco (a name so common as to be essentially impossible to trace), and helping train guerrillas at this time.

Vivés reports that his information on Grobart, comes from an “operation” he performed for the Castro security forces in the residence of the then recently deceased secretary of Grobart, and individual known as Juan Andreu. Andreu was less well known writer, whose other distinction was to be married to the famous soprano Zoila Gálvez. Grobart’s actual activities are not clearly known and subject to controversy. For instance during the foiled so called micro-faction plot, in which it is said that the “old” communists tried to oust or at least control Castro, Grobart was by necessity involved. And yet this same source provides no mention of Grobart actions for or against this very significant plot. Apparently this was a prolonged struggle starting earlier. Grobart is a survivor. Raffe credits Grobart with saving Castro, during the micro-faction affair and Anibal Escalante Dellundé (oddly considered as a “natural progression” by Trotskyites sources ) is exiled to Prague, and there Escalante ends up working for the Soviet Press. USSR ambassador Kondriatsev sent home from Cuba. Apparently this effort to save Castro was supported by Castro’s feared security chief “Barbaroja” Manuel Piñeiro. Those accused of being co-conspirators were imprisoned. Raffy is more specific giving a somewhat earlier date for that “plot”, stating that Anibal Escalante Dellundé was assigned much of the blame. Thus, as in this example Castro due in great part to Grobart’s advice and its derived Soviet support, implemented unified control and economic policies designed not to provide general welfare, but to consolidate and perpetuate almost absolute power.

So far nothing has been found that reveals Grobart’s actions during Castro’s bloody “War Against the Bandits,” not even in officially sanctioned Cuban publications; yet he by necessity must have been involved at very least in the recruitment of the Hispano-Russian generals who guided its suppression. The same can be said of the Missile Crisis. As Grobart turned grew older he was considered the Party's historian; he died in Cuba on 22 October 1994.

Unknowns. Many years may pass before we understand all that Fabio Grobart did. For instance while can presume that Grobart’s family and relatives in Europe died in the Holocaust, we do not know that with certainty. While he was in Cuba in 1939 we do not understand if he really was Jew why Grobart either cooperated in or did not react to the “Voyage of the Damned” tragedy. Relationships between Grobart and William Wieland (aka Arturo Montenegro) are apparently not known, yet Grobart was in apposition to be actively aware of Montenegro’s activities during the overthrow of Machado, in the Bogotazo, the US arms embargo against Batista, and the Bay of Pigs Invasion.

Covert recruits attributed to Cuban communist party under direction of Grobart.

Aside from overt recruits, a number of covert operatives have been attributed to the Grobart controlled/ or influenced Cuban communist party. The level of “proof” of a covert agent who was never discovered by US or pre-Castro intelligence agencies varies from the purely speculative, to almost absolute certaintly. These include William Weiland (a.k.a Arturo or Guillermo Arturo Montenegro), who may have been the most important mole within the US State Department.

Results attributable in part or in whole to Grobarts efforts. By the criteria we commonly use to judge economic success, individual prosperity and well being, the grobian economics we see now established in Cuba are very unsuccessful. Yet if one judges success of an economy by the centralized power engendered and focused, to the ends of the “leader” the Cuban economy is a powerful force. The Island has a garrison economy, a feudal type system which aims at perpetual expansion. Here only the leader and in a diminishing way as their level of power decreases his “apparatchiks” enjoy measures of comfort. This too is feudal, and focused on a war of expansion. Now, despite Fidel Castro’s incapacitation, the garrison economic system Grobart worked so hard, schemed and killed to engender and perpetuate continues and spreads in Latin America. Perhaps the hard lesson in all of this is that such endeavors to promote this kind of economic system both in their violent implementation and their rule do not result in advancement of a countries’ population. On the contrary the conflicts and damage done to promote economies only help develop a new ruling class while the less favored members of these societies suffer, as is in the case of Cuba, and in all probability other countries that attempt to follow this path. And yet such societies are a very real danger to all democracies and generalized economic progress.

Conclusions The Castro cult of personality infers that his personal brilliance makes advisors unnecessary; but this is obviously absurd as demonstrated by the failed economic system he imposed. Review of a life time career suggests Castro’s principal adviser and mentor Fabio Grobart was extremely important in setting the stage for the failed marxist state economy of Cuba, and also was significant in its cruel implementation. The results of these policies are quite apparent today in ways far too numerous to mention here. Many details of Grobart’s career have not as yet been presented to public view; thus Grobart’s contributions to development of Castro economic policy are believed large, but not at all well known. However, the most important thing to keep in mind, given the recent revival of this kind state marxist policies in other countries of Latin America is to avoid future disasters of this kind. Thus, Grobart’s career is a cautionary tale on what must be avoided.

Larry Daley, copyright@2007

References cited

Aguilar, Luis E. 1974 Cuba 1933, Prologue to Revolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y. ISBN 039300712-X A valuable and interesting history of Cuba. It has most interesting details such as the foundation of the marxist socialist party in 1898 (footnote on p. 21; League of Cuban Workers p. 79), 1901 and 1906 (pp. 85 footnote 34). Only too frequently other authors mark the foundation of the Cuban Stalinist communist party as of 1924, even if for quite some the time it went under the title Partido Socialista Popular. Even today communists in Cuba consider themselves to be “socialists.” On pages 74-76 it clearly points out the conflict between Julio Antonio Mella and that Stalinist communist party he helped found. This action of Mella plus a brief flirtation with Trotskyites in Mexico City are often given as a cause of his assassination. The index of this book is not complete since Fabio Grobart who immigrated to Cuba in 1922 (noted in footnote 35 on page 85) seems to be omitted from list. However, there is a most interesting translated quote attributed to Antonio Guiteras Holmes “The government will inaugurate a socialist policy… . This is another step against the bourgeoisie… .The distribution of 10,000 caballerías of land among the peasants hill not imply leaving them title to property but only the usufruct of the land. We will avoid the creation of a rural bourgeoisie, the famous kulaks so fiercely attacked by the Soviets. We will try to create cooperative farms instead.” Quoted (translated) from the first page of “Ahora” December, 19, 1933, front page by Aguilera 1974, on p. 181.
Alba, Victor 1968 Politics and the labor movement in Latin America. Stanford. University Press, Stanford, California. pp. 295-296. ASIN B0006BNYGK
Albo, José 2005 (accessed 5-27-07) ¿Anti-israelismo o neo-antisemitismo cubano? Opinión. Cuba Encuentro Lunes, 18 de julio de 2005 “La Habana exalta el terrorismo palestino y mantiene en la prensa una postura agresiva contra Tel Aviv. Sin embargo, incentiva bajo cuerda el turismo israelí.”
Albers, Patricia 1999 Shadows, Fire, Snow – The Life of Tina Modotti, Clarkson Potter, ISBN 0-609-60069-9
Alonso, Robert 2003 (accessed 3-11-07) ¡Ni un seul pas en arriere! CANTV El Hatillo 2 de marzo de 2003 “Otto Meruelo, vocero del General, se refería a los —rebeldes“ con calificativos como —forajidos“, —saqueadores“ y —COMUNISTAS“. This is the html version of the file
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition 2000 (accessed 3-25-07) Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2003. “Classism Bias based on social or economic class.”
Andreu, José R. (accessed 4-6-07) El Presidente Cordial. Guamá (Publicación de la Organización Auténtica O/A)) “El presidente Grau lo escogió como discípulo predilecto para el cargo de Primer Ministro y luego’ como Ministro de Trabajo tuvo el coraje de eliminar a los comunistas del control de la Confederación de Trabajadores, los desalojó del edificio en Que se instalaban y legalmente clausuró su periódico y estación de radio.”
Anonymous CIA operative. 1991 (released 4-18-05, accessed 2-18-07) Working the Cuban beat. Case number EO-2005-00090
Argote-Freyre, Frank, 2006 Fulgencio Batista. From Revolutionary to Strongman. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey ISBN 978-0813537010
Arboleya, Jesus 2000 Cuban Counterrevolution. Ohio University Research in International Studies Series Latin America Series. No 33. Ohio University Press, Athens, Ohio, ISBN-10: 0896802140 ISBN-13: 978-0896802148 ” Bias and omissions spew continually from these pages. For example p. 15 the murder of Julio Antonio Mella in 1929 is attributed solely to Cuban President turned Dictator Gerardo Machado. Nothing is said that Mella was most probably, or even almost certainly, murdered by assassins of the communist international because of his increasing contacts with Trotskyites. There is mention of “Movimiento de Veteranos y Patriotas” but no mention that this group soon broke ties with the communists. On page 61 Father Amando Llorente is vilified for fascist ties and yet no mention is made that this priest had been a favorite instructor of Fidel Castro.”
Artaraz, Kepa 1998 Juntos pero no revueltos: Cuba, the New Left and the pages of Pensamiento Crítico, Paper presented to the Society for Latin American Studies Postgraduates in Latin American Studies (PILAS) 1998 Conference, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England (5-6 December 1998). This author disagrees with the thesis presented here views communist influence/control of Castro by such as Grobart as evolutionary rather than planned. (accessed 5-3-07) Bashirov Gumer Bashirovich (ss. 1901), G o o g l e's cache of ”Tatar writer. Roman "Chest" (1948) of the Tatar collective farm during the Great Patriotic War; Novel about modernity "Seven keys Altynbike (kn. 1-2, 1977-78, the English translation -" Seven springs"; Lieve story "Rodimy edge to the green, my cradle" (1967.USSR State Prize (1951)
Asís, Moisés 2000 Judaism in Cuba 1959-1999 ICCAS Occasional Paper Series,
Azambuja, Carlos I.S. 2004 (accessed 6-8-07) As contradições do marxismo. MídiaSemMáscara 27 de maio de 2004 “Em Cuba, todavia, como o PC – então denominado Partido Socialista Popular (PSP) – não conseguiu encontrar aliados social-democratas, liberais ou democratas, acabou apoiando o ditador Fulgêncio Batista: “O coronel Batista tornou-se um elemento importante da frente de forças progressistas (...). A reação e o fascismo unem suas forças e urdem planos desesperados para derrubar Batista” (Resolução Política do III Congresso do PSP, janeiro de 1939).”
Barron, John 1974 KGB: The Secret Work of Soviet Secret Agents. Readers Digests Press, New York ISBN 0883490099 pp. 147-151
Batista, Fulgencio 1960 Repuesta. Manuel León Sánchez S.C.L., Mexico D.F. pp. F298 and 491 mention Otto Meruelos condemned to 30 years. And p. 491 also mentions the trial of former army photographer Sergeant Leal Gamboa, tried on February 6, 1960, and condemned to one year of imprisonment for photographing a group of Castro supporters giving the communist salute
Bayo, Alberto 1959 (web date 2005 accessed 6-8-07) Mensaje del General Alberto Bayo a todos los Españoles Documentos del Movimiento por la IIIª República (1959-1964) Estudios sobre la historia del movimiento comunista. 25/04/2005 “En La Habana. Cuba, abril de 1959.”
Beals, Carleton 1938 The coming struggle for Latin America. J. B. Lippincott Company. Philadelphia
Beichman, Arnold 2003 (accessed 1-19-07) How Stalin, the 'breaker of nations,' hated, murdered Jews, a review of Arno Lustiger‘s “Stalin and the Jews” Washington Times
Bejarano, Margalit 1992 The Jewish community in Cuba 1898-1939. Communal consolidation and trends of integration under the impact of changes in world Jewry and Cuban society. (Supervisors Haim Avni and Fred Bronner). PhD Thesis Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. Entre under The Jewish Community of Cuba 1898-1939 (English/Hebrew dissertation)
Bejarano, Margalit 2007 Personal communications. Date: Tue, 5 Jun 2007 12:08:01 +0300 From: margalit bejarano To: Subject: Re: Trying to find out more about Otto Ott Larry, I cannot accept your assumption that Otto Ott and Grobart were the same person. The news in Dos Yidishe Wort was written by persons who knew Grobart very well (as Avreml Simjovich). Grobart spoke in public defending the pact with Ribbentrop. (somewhere I had a copy of the invitation for an act on the subject - from the Leizer Ran collection in Yivo). I started to read a book called El Polaquito, by Jorge Fuentes (La Habana 2005) about Fabio Grobart. It is well informed. Everything you write about him interests me, as I find him a fascinating figure. As for my thesis: I don't know what to say. It has not been published. I suppose it was sent to the Library of Congress and maybe some other places - but I don't remember. It was typed by what seems today a very primitive printer - but maybe we can make a photocopy and send it. I'll have to require the costs, since I'll have to give the work to a student. It is in Hebrew!!! Good luck with your research,' Prior separate communication Subject: Re: Trying to find out more about Otto Ott From: "margalit bejarano" Date: Mon, June 4, 2007 12:10 pm To: "Larry Daley" Dear Larry, I looked in my PhD dissertation and found only one sentence - that I don't know if it will help you. It says (in Hebrew) that in 1933 an anti-semitic group took control of the Hungarian Club of Havana (in Teniente Rey 41) and decided to expel all the Jewish members. Together with the Jews was also expelled Otto Ott, owner of a restaurant in Acosta street, who tried to oppose the antisemitic group. (Dos Yidishe Wort 7 June 1933 p. 1, 5 July 1933 p. 1) During the St. Louis affair Ott is mentioned as owner of a Swiss restaurant that was a meeting point for Nazi agents (Voyage of the Damned, p. 34, (and other LD)). Hope that this helps. I'll be interested to know if you find anything else,”
Bejerano, 2007a personal communications Subject: Re: Jews in Cuba detail Julio Lobo owned property near where Castro landed From: "Larry Daley" Date: Fri, June 15, 2007 9:01 am To: "margalit bejarano" Cc: "Larry Daley" Margalit: Thank you very much,.... As to communists in the area, anybody with a labor problem probably had to deal with them....Yes Hugh Thomas is quite complete, however despite his knighthood he is not infallible, for instance he lists the caballeria (a unit of land area) as 330 acres, when in reality it is 33 acres (about 13 hectares I think). This seemingly trivial error leads to major distortion when talking of concentrations of land area. Have been documenting communist activity in the Sierra, to back up observations of Grandfather, others of my family and myself. Judging by Cuban government web sites (which are not the most reliable source in the world (:) ) it was quite extensive, which fits with personal memories. However, they rarely engaged Batista forces leaving that task to others....take care and be well Larry Daley On Fri, 15 Jun 2007, margalit bejarano wrote: Date: Fri, 15 Jun 2007 10:23:35 +0300 From: margalit bejarano To: Subject: Re: Jews in Cuba detail Julio Lobo owned property near where Castro landed Larry, Robert Quirk writes about Castro landing in Julio Lob's central when he arrived in the Sierra Maestra. Possibly this is mentioned in Hugh Thomas - that always has all the details. There is no connection, however, with Communist presence in the area (which seems strange to me - for 1956). Julio Lobo is considered a Jew, but as far as I know (and this is a subject I studied) he had no relations with the Jewish community. I don't remember his name being connected with anything, not even the United Hebrew Congregation. BTW, do you have the book of Jay Levinson? He is not a professional historian, but devoted quite a few years to study Cuban Jews. He worked from FBI and the Israeli police, and has a good nose for personal details. You may wish to contact him: Jay Levinson E-mail Address(es): Margalit ----- Original Message ----- From: To: "margalit bejarano" Cc: "Larry Daley" Sent: Friday, June 15, 2007 8:10 AM Subject: Re: Jews in Cuba detail Julio Lobo owned property near where Castro landed Dear Margalit: While looking for something else entirely a report of the Cuban goverment (which i do not fully trust but find interesting) states the Julio Lobo owned considerable land near where Castro landed in 1956, and that there was a well established communist presence in the area (which may well imply that Fabio Grobart had something to do with it):
Morales García, Yordanis, Enrique Almaguer Manganelly and staff Municipio
de Niquero 2007 (Accessed 6-14-07) Reseña Histórica del Municipio. Portada
de la Libertad (Niquero) Jueves 29 de Marzo, 2007 "Después de la
Huelga de 1912 el movimiento obrero continuó tomando auge, esto tiene su
expresión mas alta en la fundación del Partido Comunista de Cuba, el 19 de
septiembre de 1929, en el Cayo la Uva, siendo su secretario Beremundo
González....Existían tres grandes latifundios: el de la familia Castillo
con 523 caballerías de tierra; el del Central Niquero S.A. con mas de 2
000 caballerías de tierra pertenecientes al magnate azucarero Julio Lobo
Alabama, y el latifundio de los Núñez Beatty con 1 239,85 caballerías en
la zona de Belic."

As you know Julio Lobo(Wolf) was the richest man in Cuba, and also a Jew.
The trouble with this kind of information, is that it can be distorted to
anti-Semitic ends. Do you have any suggestions along these lines e.g.
Lobo owned much land elsewhere too; he went into exile, ... take care and be well Larry Dear Larry, I started to read your draft and saw that you cited Maritza. I also realize that you come from a very different political perspective. I am curious to know what you did in Oriente in 1958... You seem to have an interesting bond to Cuba. Try to get the book el polaquito: it has useful information. Margalit (separate message Subject: Re: Cuban Jews
From: Date: Thu, June 14, 2007 12:55 pm
To: "margalit bejarano" Cc: "Larry Daley" i
Dear Margalit: Thank you for your kind and tactful inquiry. I am a retired academic:
Since my training is in plant biochemistry and physiology; it is important
for me when writing historical topics to rely on a number of good friends
who are professional historians. It is my hope that we can collaborate in
a similar fashion. When Natalie (nee Cohen) allowed me married to marry her I converted Reform (“non-surgically” after all being part Cuba gives one pause with such things (;>) ). The Cuban side of my family, comes through my mother Leonela Garcia-Iñiguez Enamorado Ramirez who was (she died this year at almost 97) part of a very extensive family of Mambí of quite some repute and who lived in the Sierra Maestra. We are part near-Taíno and apparently have
been there for many centuries. On the side I write accounts of life in Cuba, in very minor literary journals and on the web: E.g. The Sharp Smell of Swine Mire:
My father was English of Irish-Catholic descent who during WWII was a
captain in the Royal Engineers.
They met in Liverpool where grandfather Calixto (Garcia-Iñiguez)
Enamorado, who fought his way up from soldier to Brigadier General in the
last of the Cuban wars of Independence Cuban consul general.
He was a love child of Cuban Major General Calixto Garcia Iñiguez
I am writing a book of memories “Narrations of War in Cuba;” drafts of
this can be found on the web at:
From this last site you will see how I joined Castro’s Sierra Maestra
guerrillas in early 1958 and was detained by Castro in 1961, the British
Ambassador got me and my sister out of jail….take care and be well
Larry) ----- Original Message ----- From: "Larry Daley" To: "margalit bejarano"
Cc: "Larry Daley" Sent: Wednesday, June 13, 2007 10:12 PM
Subject: Re: Cuban Jews Dear Margalit:
thank you very much... Yes I do have Corrales book, I cited it in my
paper on Grobart and wrote a review on it in Apparently your
friend and I disagree quite a bit. Being on the Island has advantages and
disadvantages for one interested in history. For instance the death of
Mella is attributed to the Machado regime on the Island, out of Cuba the
question is far more open, and the role of Grobart is viewed as far less
benign. For a brief time in Russia the KGB files on the matter were
accessible, and it seems that the Soviet Union agents (resumable
Grobart) were involved. Still Grobart was a pallbearer when Mella's ashes
reached Havana. Will send material on the matter separately.
However, the important point is I bought and read Corrales book and
despite my criticism found useful items in it.... Criticizing the book
is quite different from criticizing the author, especially for me after all
at the end of December 1958 I was at Central Oriente standing as a
target, I vaguely resembled a smaller Castro, as a whole bunch of other rebels
dragged an apparent assassin equipped with a sniper rifle from the sugarcane fields...see "Narrations of War in Cuba." take care and be well
Larry Daley On Wed, 13 Jun 2007, margalit bejarano wrote:
Date: Wed, 13 Jun 2007 19:05:42 +0300 From: margalit bejarano To: Larry Daley
Subject: Re: Cuban Jews Dear Larry,
I will tell the student to start copying and scanning the material. He
has to copy first, because of the size of paper (my PhD was done with
what seems today very primitive means). As for the Yiddish paper - this
is something I should look for, and I don't think I have the time for
it right now. The file should be sent to you in pdf. Is this OK? You may
copy it and pass it to your colleagues. Thank you for letting me use the material on Grobart. I still haven’t
published the book on Cuban Jews that I hope to finish one day - but
right now I am involved in other subjects, especially Sephardim in
Latin America. Next month I am leaving for Brazil and Argentina, and I have to
finish several things before, so Grobart is not on my immediate agenda.
My colleague and dear friend Maritza Corrales published a book on Cuban
Jews, that was based on personal stories, one of which is that of
Grobart. I don't know if you have it. It is called "The Chosen Island"
and was published Salsedo Press in Chicago, It should be on Amazon. If
you are interested only in the short story of Grobart, I may scan it
for you. best, Margalit ----- Original Message ----- From: "Larry Daley" To: "margalit bejarano"
Cc: "Larry Daley" Sent: Wednesday, June 13, 2007 6:27 PM
Subject: Re: Cuban Jews Margalit: Thank you very much you are most kind.
If the student would send me his address I will send him a check now so
that it will clear by the time he finishes copying the thesis. Will add
some more to cover the copies of the Havana Yiddish paper on Otto Ott and
anything else you think I should have. BTW if you have electronic copying facilities, such as we have here that would be a much better format since then I could pass it along (with your kind permission of course) to historian friends of mine. Have added a great deal to the Grobart paper and while it is still rough it is now more complete. Will send you another copy as soon as I complete today's additions and revisions. Clearly there is need of a scholarly book on Grobart, and since I am retired and busy writing other things, my paper on Grobart will merely be an appendix to "Narrations on War in Cuba" and-or a separate
article... Thus, should you or anybody you suggest be interested in
writing such a book (especially if it is in English or Spanish and
thus able to reach a wider audience. please feel free to use the leads
developed in my paper in progress and if it is appropriate including a little citation to whatever my paper becomes. take care and be well Larry Daley On Wed, 13 Jun 2007, margalit bejarano wrote: Date: Wed, 13 Jun 2007 14:14:47 +0300 From: margalit bejarano To: Larry Daley Subject: Cuban Jews Dear Larry, I asked a student in my department how much he will charge you for scanning my PhD. He said that it will cost $40 (in all it's about 400 pages). If you are interested, he promised that it will be ready within a week. Now it's up to you. You'll have to pay him personally, of course. I still didn't have the time to read your work on Fabio Grobart, but I hope that soon I'll do it and will return to you, Margalit
Bell, J. Bowyer 1966 republished 2006 Besieged: seven cities under siege. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey, ISBN-10 1412805864, ISBN-13 978-1412805865
Benson, Paul, 1955 (reviewed 1960) Comparisons of Species of wood for gunstocks. Publication No. D1723, United States Department of Agriculure Forestry Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison 5, Wisconsin. “Birch has been used as a source of gunstocks in Europe, and our native yellow birch (Betula lutea) has been used to supply machine gun butts and stocks”
Birmingham Small Arms Company G o o g l e's cache of as retrieved on Dec 29, 2006 19:31:56 GMT (accessed 3-5-07). “In the Second World War BSA possessed 67 factories and was well set up, in order to serve the need from rifles and ammunition to. BSA worked also under license. During the war they produced over 1 million Lee Enfield rifles and one half million Browning submachine guns”
Bohemia Staff 1959 Oriente. Bohemia 51(3, Enero 18-25) 4-8, 142-146, 158-164, 172-175 cite on p. 174 “Otto Meruelo, el bufón de la TV ofreció uno de sus acostumbrados libretos. Un desertor de la Sierra, Ángel Velázquez, compareció ante las cameras para recitar su papel como papagallo amaestrado. Según explico, Fidel recibía órdenes directas del Kremlin. Era Kruschev quien dirigía, a través del Che, al Movimento 26 de Julio. Evidentemente, la propaganda batistera estaba en manos de cretinos y malvados.”
Bonachea, Ramón L. and Marta San Martín 1974 (second printing 1995) The Cuban insurrection. New Brunswick (USA) and London. ISBN 0878555765 pp. 17-18
Brizuela Arias, Yadilis Leonor 2007 (accessed 5-13-07) Rubén Martínez Villena: Legítima madera de héroe Diario Digital de Granma, Cuba. Published January 16 2007 Sunday May 13 2007 edition, Yadilis Leonor is related apparently related to communist scoutmaster Manuel(?) Brizuela of Bayamo, who in turn apparently descended from Rebel Taino Brizuela of Baitiquirí (see Daley “Narrations of War in Cuba), and perhaps Victor El Brizuela alia El Jorobado a communist guerrilla captured by Luis Posada Carriles in Venezuela (Los Caminos del Guerrero, Chapters 3, 5 and 8). “Había entregado su vida a la lucha revolucionaria. Contaba su amigo Fabio Grobart que cuando lo vio el año antes de fallecer, apenas podía mantenerse sobre sus pies, extenuado por encontrarse en pleno activismo durante la huelga general del 12 de agosto de 1933, que había derribado la tiranía de Gerardo Machado. Pero aún así se resistía a ingresar en el sanatorio…. En la madrugada del 16 de enero de 1934 murió, con los pulmones destrozados.”
Braden, Spruille GET CITES Spruille Braden
Broué, Pierre 2006 (accessed 3-29-07) 2. France-Navigation, “Compañia Roja” Boletín electrónico de la fundación Andreu Nin número 51. enero 2006
“Mencionemos, para terminar este análisis demasiado esquemático del papel del aparato de la Internacional Comunista, que sabemos muy pocas cosas de Munzenberg y su imperio de prensa, que creó y controló en Londres la Spanish News y en Paris la Agencia España, colocada bajo la dirección de Otto Katz, con periodistas como Artur Koestler. Este último vió al propio Katz mostrar a parlamentarios ingleses las iglesias quemadas (burned by Republicans? L.
D) en Julio. asegurando que éstas habían sido destruidas por los bombardeos franquistas. Por lo demás, este afirma que Katz disponía de sumas considerables que utilizaba para “sobornar” copiosamente a periodistas y patronos de prensa.”
Buch Rodríguez, Luis M. as interviewed in 1989 by Suárez Suárez, Reinaldo ¿2000? (last accessed 3-31-07) in: Un insurreccional en dos épocas Con Antonio Guiteras y con Fidel Castro “p. 29 Suárez: ¿Era Guiteras comunista? Buch: Antonio Guiteras no militaba en el Partido Comunista de Cuba. Pero si era socialista, creía en el socialismo…..p.30 Buch: El jefe del puesto de la Guardia Rural telefoneo a Guiteras y le pidió autorización para desalojar a los obreros y arriar la bandera roja. Guiteras le contesto: -Póngame al teléfono a su segundo al mando y cuando este estaba en el teléfono, le ordeno: -Desarme al sargento y métalo en el calabozo. Usted tome posesión como jefe del puesto y garantice la tomadle central por los obreros y respeto a la bandera roja…p. 36 “Con la muerte de Guiteras se derrumbaron todos los planes insurreccionales que se venia fraguando. La Revolución Cubana necesito de dieciocho años para recuperar la vía insurreccional, cuando Fidel Castro ataco el cuartel Moncada….”
Burgos, Elizabeth (accessed 1-13-07) Review of Serge Raffy’s “Castro, el infiel.” Carta de Cuba, la escritura de la libertad
Caballero, Manuel 2002 Latin America and the Comintern, 1919-1943. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom p. 35 “The Comintern nevertheless continued to send agents abroad….It is not impossible that that the pole, Fabio Grobart, had been one of those envoys, but here it should be taken into consideration that the anti-Communist propaganda in Cuba could have exaggerated his position. Grobart has been a very important leader of the Cuban Communist party from its foundation to the present, more than half a century later. His Slavic origin made him a logical choice to be targeted as the ‘man from Moscow” behind other leaders of the Cuban communist party.” P. 145 “He (Spruille Braden, US Ambassador in Cuba LD) a group led by ‘Fabio Grobart, who is the person the Embassy believes to be the real director of Communist activities in Cuba'.(ref. 40) Moreover, concluded his comment referring to his confidential information that the Cuban Communist party had conserved a hidden Leninist organization parallel to the legal apparatus, what (sic) he called a ‘secret group within the communist Party organization which follows the habitual pattern adopted by Communist parties in countries outlawing its activities,’ a group led by ‘Fabio Grobart, who is the person the Embassy believes to be the real director of Communist activities in Cuba'.(ref. 40) Moreover, he state that he had serious reason to think that Cuba was somehow the key point in Communist operations ‘not only for the Caribbean area but also for Spain’.(ref. 41).”
Campello, F. Lennox Accessed 2005 The Cuban Communist Party's Anti-Castro Activities
Caner Camejo, Asdrubal 2007 (accessed 6-7-07) El dominio sobre los medios masivos de comunicación (ii); El sistema de partido único (iv) Cayo Canas Island (blog) miércoles 21 de marzo de 2007; jueves 22 de marzo de 2007 “Marzo de 1959 fue pletórico para Fidel Castro. Tenía su cuartel general en el piso 23, suite 2046 del Habana Hilton. Allí, entre las piernas de Marita Lorenz, Ava Gardner, Naty Revuelta, Celia Sánchez y Lidia Ferreido, aplacaba el stress de esos días iniciales, en las savias vaginales de esas diosas. Viajaba del hotel a la fortaleza de La Cabaña, donde se reunía con el ex representante de la Komintern para América y miembro de la KGB soviética, Fabio Grobart y el Che Guevara, jefe de la fortaleza. Las reuniones duraban hasta el amanecer.” “En realidad, en la febril y tenebrosa conspiración de la fortaleza de La Cabaña, con Favio Grobart y el Che Guevara, la suerte de los partidos cubanos fue sellada: desaparecerían. Es por eso que, al año siguiente, el 1º de mayo de 1960, en el discurso pronunciado en la Plaza Cívica,..”
Cantallops, Aramís as told to María de las Nieves Galá (accessed 3-2-07) Camilo Cienfuegos: en el próximo combate quiero ir junto a usted. Radio Habana Cuba
Cantón Martínez, Diana Margarita 2006 (accessed 6-6-07) Obedecer a Dios como gobernante mas bien que a los hombres. Personal Blog of Diana Margarita. “Se hablaba bastante en casa de la Cuaresma y su bendición para las crías de pollo que tuvimos en nuestro arrabal de Rancho Grande (Pinar del Rio). El comunismo llegó a abrazar a los Cantones por la década del 30 cuando el polaco Flavio Grobart visitó la ciudad natal, pero mi abuela paterna siguió siendo católica, como mi tía Fina, que después devino en fidelista cristiano-comunista. Fina fue la que más me habló de nuestras raíces mambisas y comunistas. Mi abuelo Manuel María había pasado de liberal a comunista con dos o tres hermanos: Eduardo, Enrique. Se creó un mito familiar y social con eso. En realidad yo tuve contacto directo solo con mi abuelo campesino hasta su muerte; se dio cuenta del engaño antes de morir.”
Cantón Navarro, José 2005 (accessed 4-6-07) The first (sic) Cuban Communist Party Bohemia Digital August 5, 2005 A CubaNews translation by Ana Portela. Edited by Robert Sandels and Walter Lippmann. Possibly short young person to the immediate right of Ruben Martinez Villena Photo legend “Ruben Martinez Villena reading the relevant document when the communists too leadership of the Cuban National workers Confederation (CNOC)” Compared with photo in Suarez Ramos, Felipa (accessed 1-13-07) Fabio Grobart (far older) en el movimiento sindical cubano, Suplemento Trabajadores 29 de agosto
Carbonell, Nestor T. 1989 And the Russians Stayed: The Sovietization of Cuba: A Personal Portrait. William Morrow & Co; New York ISBN-10 0688072135 ISBN-13: 978-0688072131
Carr, Barry 1996 Mill Occupations and Soviets: The Mobilisation of Sugar Workers in Cuba 1917-1933 Journal of Latin American Studies 28, (No. 1 . Feb., 1996), pp. 129-158 “Abstract: In August, September and October 1933 Cuban sugar workers seized several dozen mills and estates and, in a number of cases, inaugurated soviets. This major worker uprising coincided with the collapse of the regime of Gerardo Machado and the early stages of the reformist administration of Grau San Martin. An examination of the roots of labour organisation among sugar workers and of the dynamic of the insurgency reveals the strengths and the limitations of the role played by the Cuban Communist Party. The collapse of the institutional and coercive structures of the state apparatus greatly facilitated the worker actions.” GET
Carbonell, Nestor T. 1989 And the Russians Stayed: The Sovietization of Cuba: A Personal Portrait. William Morrow & Co; New York ISBN-10 0688072135 ISBN-13: 978-0688072131
Carrillo, Justo 1985 Cuba 1933: Estudiantes, Yanquis y Soldados Instituto de Estudios Interamericanos, University of Miami ISBN: 0935501002
Casañas Lostal, Esteban 2002 (accessed 6-4-07) Los Cubículos Guaracabuya 24 de Enero de 2002 La primera oportunidad en la cual visité una de esas "posadas" que luego formaran parte de mi vida, lo hice siendo muy chamaco. Recuerdo que fue con una exquisita mulatica del barrio Juanelo, ella tenía solamente 15 años y era casada, yo era un blanquito menudito y que la talla del pantalón en ese tiempo era de 28x30. Fuimos a la posada "Las Palmitas" que se encuentra en la avenida Acosta, digo, se encontraba porque ahora es un "cubículo" o en proceso de serlo de acuerdo a las noticias. Fuimos a practicar el deporte nacional, al menos lo era para la juventud de la época porque no teníamos otra cosa que hacer, solo beber y templar. Luego las cosas cambiaron un poco, pero nunca estuvieron al alcance de los "desposeídos y beneficiados por la revolución".
Castellano García, Gerardo 1927. Tierras y Glorias de Oriente (Calixto García Iñiguez) Editorial Hermes Havana
Castillo Ramos, Ruben 1956 Muerto Edesio, El rey de la Sierra Maestra {Edesio The king of the Sierra Maestra is Dead 1914-1956} {Photographs by Perez Tamarit and Rudolfo Vasell}, Bohemia XLVIII No. 9 {August 12 1956} pp. 52-54 and 87 (Annnotated translation Daley, Larry 1997 Context and Significance of the Bandit Edesio Hernandez in the Cuba of the 1950s Revista Guaracabuya It seems that the reporter died in Bayamo on June 26, or 29th “2004.- Fallece en Bayamo, a los 87 años de edad, el destacado periodista y combatiente revolucionario Rubén Castillo Ramos, quien publicó numerosos trabajos en Bohemia.”
Castillo Ramos, Ruben 1959 Cruzada redentora en la Sierra, Bohemia, April 26, 1959 GET COMPLETE REFERENCE)
Castro, Fidel 1957 (accessed 3-11-07) Un año de lucha armada. Centro de Estudios Che Guevara Taken from Verde Olivo, el 5 de enero de 1964. ” Se podían expresar, cuando no había censura, algunas opiniones disidentes, pero voceros oficiosos u oficiales del régimen llamaban a la concordia nacional con sus voces potentes, transmitidas en cadena para todo el territorio nacional. Con la histérica voz de Otto Meruelo se alternaban las engoladas de los payasos Pardo Llada y Conte Agüero y, este último, en la palabra escrita, repetía los conceptos de la radio, llamando al “hermano Fidel”, a la coexistencia con el régimen batistiano.”
Castro, Fidel 1959 (accessed 3-10-07) Discurso pronunciado por El Comandante Fidel Castro Ruz, Primer Ministro del Gobierno Revolucionario, En La Universidad Central “Marta Abreu”, de Santa Clara, Las Villas, El 15 de marzo de 1959. (versión taquigráfica de las oficinas del primer ministro) “Al pueblo no lo van a tupir, al pueblo no lo van a engañar, porque al pueblo no lo engañaron los Otto Meruelo, los Díaz Balart y toda aquella caterva de pícaros que lo único que sabían era mentir, pero a pesar de ser los únicos que hablaban no engañaban a nadie.”
Castro, Fidel 1964 Continuación del juicio de apelación en la causa seguida contra Marcos Rodríguez Alfonso, delator de los Mártires de Humbold 7, Tribunal Supremo, Palacio de Justicia, La Habana, 26 de Marzo de 1964 (from entry found under: Segundo Vista del juicio contra el delator Marcos Rodríguez. Bohemia Abril 3, 1964 pp. 28-71. http://www.latinamericanstudies,org/cuba/bohemia-4-3-1964 pdf.-4-3 p. 68 Castro apparently citing Marcos Rodríguez “Vamos a ver las cosas que dice que hizo: En el mes de mayo el Partido decidió mi viaje, Saque un pasaporte nuevo, entregando el falso a Joaquín. Se me encomendaron varias cosas que a continuación agrego. -Eso es de que le dijeron que no se casara, que cuando llegara a Praga viera a Fabio Grobart, etc., no tienen mayor trascendencia-
Castro, F. 1965 Speech at a Central Committee Presentation at Havana's Chaplin (originally named Blanquita, later Karl Marx) Theater Havana Domestic Radio, Speech Report_1965-10-04
Castro Medel, Osviel 2004 (accessed 5/27/2007) El periodista debe morir por sus verdades (on Rubén Castillo Ramos). Juventud Rebelde July 29, 2004 “Vivía en Cauto Embarcadero, levantaron contra Machado y Batista.... Además de los años en el 26 de Julio, estuve antes en la Joven Cuba, de Tony Guiteras…”
Goering, Laurie 2001 (accessed 1-13-07) Cuba's Jews Fight Isolation. The Baltimore Sun, August 5, 2001 []*available from archives []
CEPA (last accessed at cache 1-17-07) The Fabian Socialists This is G o o g l e's cache of http:/, / as retrieved on Jan 3, 2007 08:04:33 GMT. “The Fabians finally disintegrated in the 1930s for a variety of reasons. Firstly, the Webbs' unqualified admiration of Soviet Russia seemed distasteful to too many in their group”
Chamberlain, William Henry 2007 version Blueprint For World Conquest: As Outlined By The Communist International Kessinger Publishing, LLC (March 1, 2007 edition) ISBN-10 1432572695 ISBN-13 978-1432572693 PAGE NUMBERS OF DOCUMENTS
Chase, William 2001 (accessed 5-26-07) Enemies within the Gates? The Comintern and the Stalinist Repression 1934-1939
[vi]] Arkady Maslow (real name – Isaak Chemerinsky) (1891-1941). Originally from Russia. A member of the CPG from 1918, one of the theoreticians of the party’s left wing. Together with Ruth Fischer, he headed the CPG leadership in April 1924. In fall 1925, the ECCI removed him from the CPG leadership; in August 1926, he was expelled from the CPG. He was one of the founders of the Leninbund. In 1939, he moved to Paris where, together with Ruth Fischer, he founded the Gruppe Internationale, which later joined the International Communist League. In 1940, he went to Cuba, where he died.”
Chocano, Magdalena (accessed 4-3-07) La memoria tránsfuga: mediaciones estéticas y guerra fría en el testimonio de Eudocio Ravines. Hueso Húmero 49 G o o g l e's cache of as retrieved on Mar 22, 2007 11:06:07
CIA 1960 Communist influence in the Cuban government. Dulles Papers|Dulles Allen|Dulles Collection, Pub Date: 2/1/1960 Release Date: 3/14/2001 Case Number: F-1985-00856 “The objective of the Partido Socialista Popular (PSP-Cuban communist part…Its tactics, therefore are to conceal the membership, recruitment or reaffiliation of Party members who now occupy key positions in the government.” Following a Chinese model ”These secret Communist Party members are in close contact with known Communist Party members such as Blas Roca, Joaquin Ordoqui, Servero Aguirre, and Carlos Rafael Rodriguez, who establish public Communist Party policy and are in turn, in contact with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and the international Communist apparatus.”
CIA 11-3-1960 (released 6-6-1998. accessed 2-18-06) Cuban Developments. Current intelligence weekly review November 3 1960. Bay of Pigs| Cuba|Castro Fidel. Case number CSI-1998-00005 CIA Electronic Reading Room p. 4 “American naval attaché has received a report that 25 Czech technicians are in Cuba assisting the Cuban military on weapons already delivered from the Soviet bloc. The total number of such technicians probably will eventually reach a much higher figure, and more military equipment probably will be sent to Cuba. Further units of the Cuban civilian militia is believed to have been issued Soviet block arms during the week of 30 October (1960).” P.5 “reconaissance flights were made on 27 and 28 of October (1960) over the Swan Islands and the Guatemalan Caribbean coast—areas where the “invasion forces are allegedly being assembled.”
CIA 1961 (accessed 9-11-06) Cuban developments Current Intelligence Weekly Review, 9 November 1960. Abstract: Pages:0003 Pub Date: 11/9/1960 Release Date 6/2/1998 Case Number: CSI-1998-00005 CIA Electronic Reading Room “…Blacked out...including Abraham (Fabio L.D.) Grobart, a 55-year old veteran of the International Communist movement, lived in Cuba between 1924 and 1950…(as) Top Soviet Agent in the Caribbean area In 1950 smuggled out of Cuba on a Soviet Vessel and since then has presumable been in Prague or Moscow.”
CIA files (1962, accessed 1-21-06) The situation and prospects in Cuba published 3-21-1962, released 11-1-1999 CIA Electronic Reading Room “p. 10 footnote “The mysterious Fabio Gobart is rumored to be the secret boss of the Communist apparatus in Cuba. He came to Cuba from Poland in 1923, reputedly as the emissary of the Comintern for the purpose of organizing the Communist party. He is now one of the directors of the new doctrinal magazine Cuba Socialista –the only one who holds no prominent office.”
CIA 1962 (published 11-9-1962, released 11-1-1999, accessed 2-25-07) Castro’s subversive capabilities in Latin America. Special National Intelligence Estimate 9 November 1962 Electronic Reading Room search term “Vives” p. 10 “Castro has substantial stocks of arms, inherited from the Batista regime not being used by Castro forces and available for distribution outside of Cuba.”
CIA Inspector General (1962, sanitized release 2-18-1998, accessed 2-18-07) Inspector General's survey of the Cuban operation and associated documents Part 1 of 2 Case number F-1996-00233 CIA Electronic Reading Room pp. 9-10, 15, 27-28, 93.
Cimet-Singer, Adina 1994 The Last Battles of Old-World Ideologies in the Race for Identity and Communal Power: Communists vs. Bundists vs. Zionists in Mexico, 1938-1951 Estudios Interdisciplinarios de America Latina y el Caribe. 5 (2, Julio - Diciembre 1994) “The refugees, Communists, and leftist-Zionists created a sort of network, energetically and spiritedly exchanging public and ideas. Refugees, including Paul Meyer, Bruno Frei, Otto Katz and Theodore Balk, took part in communal activities and some even contributed to the Jewish organ of the Bnei Brith, Tribuna Israelita. These activists shared not only a Marxist- Leninist ideology, but also an interest in the practical tactics of the international Communist movement, particularly its efforts to broaden its support by developing "popular fronts.”
Cline, Ray S. 1965 (dated 12-3-1965, released 1-18-2006, accessed 2-18-07) A survey of communism in Latin America(w/atachement). Memorandum for Walt W. Rustow. CIA Electronic Reading Room. “Fabio Grobat is merely listed as a member of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces and State Security Committee”
Cockburn Claud 2006 (accessed 3-29-07) Scenes from the Spanish Civil War. Counterpunch August 1, 2006 “Otto Katz -- who was now internationally known as Andre Simon -- was a propagandist of genius. He had started his working life as cashier of a theater in Teplitz, where Marlene Dietrich worked at some very early age. Katz -- whether truthfully or untruthfully, I do not know -- always claimed to have been the first husband of Marlene Dietrich. I do know that whereas in every other connection you could call him a liar, hypocrite and ruffian of every description without his turning a hair, if you appeared to doubt this assertion about Marlene he would fly into a passion, white with rage. It is true that he made love to every good-looking woman he met and was a great deal more than averagely successful. He was a middle-sized man with a large, slightly cadaverous bead in which the skull bones were unusually prominent. He had large melancholy eyes, a smile of singular sweetness and an air of mystery -- a mystery into which he was prepared to induct you, you alone, because be loved and esteemed you so highly.”
Cole, Sid 1989 (accessed 3-29-07) Charles Cooper BECTU Oral History Project - the online interviews. The British Cinema History Research Project “Cooper was also an eye witness of the early weeks of the Spanish Civil War, assisting Otto Katz to retrieve material for his book The Nazi Conspiracy in Spain.”
Coleman, Nick 2007 (accessed l6-15-07) Russia opens espionage probe over Litvinenko killing. AFP « MOSCOW (AFP) - Russia's internal security service opened an espionage investigation Friday after the man wanted by Britain for the murder of ex-agent Alexander Litvinenko pointed the finger at Britain's MI6 intelligence agency. The FSB said in a statement that the espionage case had been opened "after analysis of statements by Russian businessman Andrei Lugovoi.”….. Moscow and London have been engaged in a tug-of-war since British prosecutors announced they were seeking Lugovoi's extradition from Russia for killing Litvinenko. While London has been seeking Lugovoi, Moscow has continued to demand that London hand over exiled businessman Boris Berezovsky -- one of the Kremlin's most outspoken critics -- who was a close friend of Litvinenko. Lugovoi and Dmitry Kovtun met Litvinenko in an upmarket London hotel on November 1, the day Litvinenko fell ill, and both left traces of the radioactive isotope used to poison him in various locations while returning to Russia….”
Corrales, Maritza 2005 The Chosen Island: Jews in Cuba. Salsedo Press, Chicago ISBN-10 0977176401, ISBN-13 978-0977176403
Corzo, Pedro 2006 (accessed 4-9-07) ¿Asesinó Castro a Camilo Cienfuegos? “KillCastro” Blog Monday, October 30, 2006 “Footnote 2 Entrevista con Ricardo Bofil. Osvaldo Sánchez pertenecía al grupo de acción del Partido Socialista Popular. Esta sindicado de haber asesinado al dirigente comunista disidente Sandalio Junco, 1942. Por órdenes de Castro organizó el cuerpo de la Seguridad del Estado en Cuba y fue muerto por fuego antiaéreo del ejército rebelde cuando la avioneta en que volaba sobre la provincia de Matanzas fue confundida con un avión enemigo.”
de la Cova, Antonio Rafael. 2007 The Moncada Attack: Birth of the Cuban Revolution.. University of South Carolina Press ISBN-10: 1570036721 ISBN-13: 978-1570036729 p. 287 "Masferrer and the novelist Carlos Montenegro founded the weekly magazine Tiempo en Cuba in January 1945. Eight months later they were expelled from the Communist Party for denouncing its leadership for its bourgeoisie and corrupt lifestyle.”
de la Cova, Antonio Rafael 2007b personal communication Subject: Re: Otto Meruelo and Angel Velazquez From: "de la Cova, Antonio Rafael" Date: Mon, March 12, 2007 7:37 am To: Otto Meruelo Baldarraín was sentenced to thirty years imprisonment at hard labor by a revolutionary tribunal in La Cabaña. The tribunal was presided over by captains Juan Nuiry, Oscar Alvarado and Antonio Llibre. The prosecutor was José A. Suárez de la Fuente, who demanded the death penalty by firing squad for colaborating with the Batista regime. Meruelo's "defense" attorney was Aramís Taboada, Fidel Castro's university buddy. Meruelos pled guilty to all the charges. Thirty witnesses testified against Meruelo, including Dora Rosales, the mother of Jose Westbrook. (Diario de la Marina, April 23 and 24, 1959 and las Américas, April 25, 1959) Meruelo later accepted the rehabilitation plan and was sent to Boniato prison, where he taught Marxism to former political prisoners who accepted the rehabilitation plan. He was released before completing his sentence nd passed away in Cuba years ago. Tony
de la Cova, Antonio Rafael 2007c personal communication Subject: Re: En su apelacion "Marquito" habla de Grobart From: "Dr. Antonio de la Cova" Date: Wed, June 6, 2007 8:19 am To: Cc: (more) “A Marcos el partido lo envía a México después de los sucesos de Humboldt 7, creo que en mayo de 1957. Marcos era un conocido homosexual, por lo tanto, decir que el partido le dijo que no se casara parece que fue su forma de públicamente esconder dicha preferencia sexual. Tony”
del la Cova, Antonio 2007d (accessed 6-12-07) Entrevista: Antonio de la Cova autor del "The Moncada Attack" Cuba Libre Digital 12/06/2007 “En el prefacio de mi libro hago un análisis de todas las obras que han tratado el tema del asalto a los cuarteles de Bayamo y del Moncada el 26 de julio de 1953. Señalo como los errores históricos se han perpetuado como mitos revolucionarios, sin que ningún historiador haya realizado un estudio académico o crítica de la “versión oficial” del gobierno cubano. Por ejemplo, en 1961 el periodista Robert Taber publicó “M-26: The Biography of a Revolution,” donde dice que Castro era “presidente de la FEU” y que “apareció brevemente dentro del cuartel” Moncada durante el ataque. Ni el propio Fidel Castro jamás ha dicho que entró en el cuartel en aquel momento. Taber se acoge a la “Leyenda Negra” creada por Castro en “La Historia Me Absolverá,” diciendo que los prisioneros rebeldes fueron torturados, les extirparon los ojos, los castraron, los mutilaron, y que a Haydée Santamaría le quemaron los brazos con hierros calientes, una mentira tan absurda que ni ella la repitió en sus memorias sobre el Moncada. Ningún historiador jamás ha cuestionado la veracidad de esos alegatos. En 1965, el novelista francés Robert Merle fue contratado por el gobierno cubano para escribir “Moncada: Premier Combat de Fidel Castro.” Merle entrevistó a sesenta rebeldes participantes, a seis civiles, y a un solo militar, el teniente que arrestó a Castro. Dicho libro carece de un relato balanceado, ya que solo presenta la “versión oficial” de los sucesos. Igual ocurre con las numerosas obras publicadas en Cuba por Marta Rojas, Mario Mencia, y otros autores, que se acogen a la advertencia que Fidel Castro dio en una reunión de la Unión de Escritores y Artistas Cubanos en agosto de 1961: “Con la revolución, todo; contra la revolución, nada.” Hasta el momento, no se había publicado una obra sobre los sucesos del 26 de julio por un académico con un doctorado en historia. Mucho de lo que se ha escrito es por escritores comprometidos con el régimen castrista o por neófitos que no tienen el entrenamiento universitario adecuado necesario para ser historiador.”
Cuban Telephone Company 1958 Directorio Telefónico de La Habana 1958 Reprinted in 2000 by HABA-DOM CORP, Miami p. 451 In the 1958 Havana phone directory there is a bar/cafeteria on Acosta called Lily (al la Marlene?) at number 269; less suitably name the Perez Avelino bar at number 518. The Lily Bar would be less than three blocks from the dock waterfront.
Cuevas, José Luis interviewed by Rafael Acosta de Arriba (accessed 4-907) Un gato macho recorre La Habana / Entrevista con el maestro mexicano José Luis Cuevas G o o g l e's cache of “así es que se habló de mi catálogo, en El Burdel de Otto, y mientras tanto se oían arriba los gritos: “Guillermito, si no subes, mira que me están esperando otros clientes”, y De Zéndegui respondía: “Coño, para allá voy, espera que estoy trabajando”.”
Daley, Larry 2000 El Fortin Canosa en la Cuba del 1898. in Los Ultimos Dias del Comienzo. Ensayos sobre la Guerra Hispano-Cubana-Estadounidense. B. E. Aguirre and E. Espina eds. RiL Editores, Santiago de Chile pp. 161-171.
Daley, Larry 2005 Parks and Protected Areas The Riverine Gallery Forests: the chill abode of the Jigue. Cuba in Transition 15, 221-234.
Daley, Larry 2006 Descriptions of Pernicious Attempts to Gain Control of the World Wide Web: The Cuba Case. Cuba in Transition 16, 241-248
Daley, Larry (as El Jigüe) 2007 Fabio Grobart. Wikipedia, (entries as from to 1-18-07 1-13-07
Daley, Laurence (Larry) 2007 Review of Corrales, Maritza 2005 The Chosen Island: Jews in Cuba. Salsedo Press, Chicago ISBN-10 0977176401 ISBN-13 978-0977176403.
Daley, Larry (Manuscript in progress) Narrations of War in Cuba. Chapter “The Cat escapes death” draft at
Debs Cardellá, Alberto 2000 (accessed 21/03/2007) El movimiento obrero y campesino en el central Niquero. Portada de la libertad (sic) Cultura Niquero “Entre enero de 1906 y 1913, surgen las primeras asociaciones socialistas fundadas por Agustín Martín Veloz. En 1912 se produce una de las huelgas azucareras más grandes del país, que fue disuelta por la represión del Ejército. Abordamos los factores que posibilitaron la fundación del Partido Comunista, así como su influencia en el movimiento obrero. Las medidas tomadas por Antonio Guiteras repercutieron grandemente como consecuencia se implantó la jornada laboral de 8 Horas y un tercer turno de trabajo. Por esta causa la compañía tuvo que desembolsar miles de pesos.”
Denny, Harold N. 1931 Machado reports revolt is crushed 2000 Rebels mass… New York Times August 18, 1931.
Department of Foreign Affairs to the President of the Republic of Tatarstan, 1998-2007 (accessed 5-3-07) Bashirov Gumer Bashirovich (born Jan 7, 1901) (1901-1999). Writer
Diaz Balart Rafael Lincoln 1960 (accessed 5-27-06) Testimony, Communist Threat to the United States Through the Caribbean U.S. Senate Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary. Tuesday, May 3, 1960
Díaz Versón, Salvador 1970 El Zarismo Rojo (Russia Avanzando sobre America). Miami, Florida. p. 82
Díaz Versón, Salvador 1980 One man, one battle. World Wide Pub. Co. New York ASIN B0006E1ULI pp. 73 and 89.
Diaz-Verson, Salvador 1997 (accessed 5-1-07) When Castro Became A Communist: The Impact on U.S.-Cuba Policy. Institute for U.S.-Cuba Relations Occasional Paper Series, Vol.1, No.1 November 3, 1997 “...Salvador Diaz-Verson presented corroborative testimony of Castro's early links with the growing anti-Americanism of the Soviet Union before the Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security.(5) Diaz-Verson testified about the destruction by the Castro forces(6) of the files he had created and meticulously maintained on Cuban communists throughout Latin America on behalf of the Anti-Communist League of Cuba.(7) This criminal act, which was widely reported by foreign newspaper correspondents in Havana the following day on January 27, 1959,(8) revealed the destruction of the Diaz-Verson archives more than one year before President Eisenhower's directive approving covert action against the Castro regime in March of 1960. Justifiably in fear of his life, Diaz-Verson fled into exile on March 19, 1959.(9),,, Notwithstanding the destruction of Diaz-Verson's files, Castro's so-called "student days" or "schooldays" clearly span from high-school-to-university encompassing the 1943 period (37) designated by Diaz-Verson as the time when "the Cuban youth who had already entered into the Soviet Union's service and who received a monthly sum of money to cover their expenses began visiting agent (Gumer W.) Bashirov's residence" in Havana included "Fidel Castro Ruz."”
Djilas, Milovan 1957 The New Class an Analysis of the Communist System. Prager ASIN B0000CJRTI
Dmytryshyn, Ned 1996 (accessed 2-19-07) Remembering Che: An Internationalist `Trabajadores' Interview With Cuban Brigadier General Harry Villegas (Pombo) The Militant 60 (2) January 15, 1996 “There he received the first demonstration of his leader's high standards of discipline. "The food here was not the worst, but there wasn't much. A comrade named Lorente began a hunger strike and I was among the leaders.”
Dolgoff, Sam (accessed 3-2-07) The Batista era. Chapter 7 of The Cuban revolution a critical perspective. Sam Dolgoff Archives. Anarchy Archives “The Communists and Batista In January 1940, the Comintern sent representatives to purge and Stalinize the Cuban Communist Party. Francisco Caldero, (a self-educated cobbler, who rose to prominence in the Cuban Party and in the Castro regime, under the name of Blas Roca) became the new secretary of the Party. After the Seventh Congress of the Comintern (Third International) decreed the "popular united front" alliance with bourgeois organizations, the Cuban Communist Party established close relations with Batista. In November 1940, the communists supported Batista's candidates in the elections to the Constituent Assembly. In return for their support, Batista allowed the communists to organize and control the government sponsored union, Cuban Confederation of Labor (CTC Confederacion de Trabajadores de Cuba) The first Secretary General of the CTC was Lazaro Pena--who, ironically, enough, held the same post in the Castro regime. In exchange for these favors the communists guaranteed Batista labor peace. In line with the Communist Party's "Popular Front Against Fascism" policy, the alliance of the Communist Party with the Batista was officially consumated when the Party joined the Batista government. The Communist Party leaders Carlos Rafael Rodriguez and Juan Marinello (who now hold high posts in the Castro government) became Ministers Without Portfolio in Batista's Cabinet.”
Dorschner, John and Roberto Fabricio 1980 The Winds of December: The Cuban Revolution of 1958. Coward, McCann & Geoghegen, New York ISBN 0698109937 “Some sixty men had survived to reach las Villas hills, where they were joined by seventy–five badly armed Marxist guerrillas of the PSP, led by Félix Torres, a one time congressman from the area, which had traditionally been a bastion of Communist support, The Column 2 leader, Comandante Camilo Cienfuegos had decided to help arm the PSP men, a move that aroused bitter arguments from some of his own rebels and a leader of the 26th of July underground, Victor Paneque, better know by his war name of Comandante Diego, They had wanted nothing to do with Comunists…”
Dayre Abella, René 2004. "La piel de la memoria" narraciones Linden Lane Magazine Volumen 4 / Abril del 2004 “Deslumbrados por lo que parecía ser un paraíso, tuvieron la honestidad de denunciar al mundo esa afrenta a la condición humana, que recordaba a los gulags estalinistas. Las UMAP desaparecieron, dejando una huella imborrable en los que las padecieron y salieron vivos de aquel infierno, pero la represion sistemática había sido establecida desde mucho antes y se mantiene vigente hoy día, como único modo de sostener en el poder por más de cuatro décadas al émulo de Stalin en nuestra sufrida Patria.
Encinosa, Enrique 1994, second edition, 1995. Cuba en Guerra. Historia de la Oposicion Anti-Castrista 1959-1993. The Endowment for Cuban American Studies. Cuban American National Foundation. ISBN: 1-884619-00-2 pp. 175 -176
Enamorado (García-Iñiguez), Calixto 1941 Correspondence from Entre Ríos (Northern foot hills of the Sierra Maestra), Guisa-Oriente Cuba to Rosita (Olga) García in Los Angeles. 26 de Abril, 1941. “… por aquí hay también muchos quinta columnistas entre los cubanos y todos los españoles que están en Cuba son quinta columnistas también, aparte de toda la canalla comunista que aquí mora y a quienes proteje nuestro gobierno… ”
Escalante Beatón, Aníbal 1946 Calixto García su campaña en el 95. Arrow Press, Havana. (Introduction by Tío Carlos General Carlos García Vélez another first hand witness).
Escalante, Fabián (Translated by Maxine Shaw) 2004 CIA covert operations 1959-1962 The Cuba Project. Second Edition Ocean Press, New York; ISBN-10 1876175990, ISBN-13: 978-1876175993
Escagedo, Eloy editor, (accessed 1-29-07) La historia de Cuba desde 1959 en gráficos, fotos y videos página 1959-1963 Circuito Sur ... etc “Fabio Grobart (el verdadero nombre de este tétrico personaje no se ha establecido con exactitud, pues también usaba los nombres de Otto Modley, Aaron Sinkovick, Abraham Simcowiz, José Michelón entre otros).”
Estefanía, Carlos M 2001 Los anarquistas en Cuba: Del machadato al batistato. Cubanuestra digital 2002-9-7 ” Sin embargo, no fueron precisamente los anarquistas los encargados de derrocar al "Gobierno de los Cien Días". (1933) Estados Unidos no reconoció diplomáticamente a Grau, mientras los comunistas mantuvieron una actividad de boicot permanente contra el "Gobierno Revolucionario", fomentando huelgas y desordenes… La oposición de los Guiteristas a entrar en componendas con los comunistas, -algo que los historiadores oficiales machacan como "error"-, se explicaba claramente por el sabotaje del estalinismo criollo al gobierno de los 100 días, y la influencia dentro del movimiento Guiterista de los elementos provenientes del trotskismo y el anarquismo cubano…. En 1939, siguiendo instrucciones de Stalin el Partido Comunista establece una alianza con el General Batista. A cambio de este respaldo, el gorila les entregó, el control de la mayor organización de trabajadores del país; La Confederación de Trabajadores de Cuba (CTC). Ella sería dirigida, tanto entonces como treinta años después bajo el gobierno de Castro por el mismo personaje; Lázaro Peña… . Bajo amparo batistiano la Confederación Nacional del Trabajo se mantuvo como feudo de los comunistas, empeñados en eliminar por completo la influencia anarcosindicalista y trotskista dentro del movimiento obrero. … También se permitieron crímenes políticos, como el asesinato de Sandalio Junco, aquel ex comunista negro fundador del trotskismo en Cuba. … En 1950, el mismo año en que Carlos Prío ilegaliza al Partido Socialista Popular (comunista), los anarquistas celebraron libremente el denominado "Tercer Congreso Libertario", entre el 11 y el 22 de marzo. …
Estefanía, Carlos Manuel 2006 (accessed 6-16-07) Cuba: tierra de mujeres guerreras, CubaNuestra Digital 2006-2-23 “Ya Guiteras había manifestado su confianza en la mujer como actor político cuando desde su condición de secretario de Gobernación designó a dos mujeres como alcaldesas: Caridad Delgadillo, en el municipio de Jaruco y a Elena Ascuy, en Güines. Ahora entre los miembros de su organización armada Guiteras contó con mujeres Dora Alonso, Dalia Rodríguez, Conchita Valdivieso, Xiomara O `Hallorrans, Hilda Touza y Dulce María Montoto. La última, por cierto participó en la venganza por la muerte del líder; el atentado que dio muerte el 8 de mayo de 1938 al capitan de la Marina de guerra Carmelo Gonzalez, individuo por cuya delación Guiteras había sido descubierto y ejecutado el 8 de mayo de 1935 cuando intentaba abordar el yate Amalia en el Morrillo, matanzas1 … Así nació, el 4 de septiembre de 1958, el pelotón Las Marianas, integrado únicamente por mujeres, algunas de ellas serán designadas por Fidel Castro parte de su guardia personal. Como jefa quedó nombrada Isabel Rielo, como segunda Delsa Ester Puebla. Así el pelotón estará conformado por Isabel y Lilia Rielo, Teté Puebla, Angelina Antolín, Rita García, Ada Bella Acosta, Normita Ferrer y Flor Pérez junto a Eva Palma, Orosia Soto, Juana Peña, Edemis Tamayo y Olga Guevara, completaran la nómina , Rita García, Angeolina Antolín y Edelmis Tamayo. De hecho las Marianas combatieron en acciones como las de la de la presa de Holguín, Cerro Pelado, Los Güiros, Velasco, La Cedena, Gibara, Las Uñas, Puerto Padre, Guisa y Maffo y Delicias… Al parecer el Che intuía que una guerrillera sería su perdición, es el caso de la argentino alemana Haydee Tamara Bunker Bider, conocida como Tania la Guerrillera. Llegó a la Habana en 1961 invitada por Alicia Alonso y el Balet Nacional, pronto se integró al proceso participando en la creación de la Federación Nacional de Mujeres Cubanas 21. Guevara la eligió para el equipo que le acompañaría en su aventura en Bolivia. Allí cayó Tania el 31 de agosto de 1967, en la selva Boliviana. Dariel Alarcón, brazo derecho de Guevara, narra en su libro Memorias de un soldado cubano: vida y muerte de la Revolución, Barcelona: Tusquets, 1997 como Guevara, desperado entre el celo y la incertidumbre violó todas las reglas de seguridad y supervivencia guerrillera facilitándoles asi al ejercito boliviano su captura.”
Estefanía, Carlos Manuel 2006b (accessed 5-3-07) Fidel Castro en el Bogotazo IV:¿Reclutado por Bashirov? Cuba Nuestra Digital 2006-6-28
Equipo de Realizacion de Pinarte (2003-2004) accessed 2-28-07) Zoila Gálvez de Andreu. Pinarte (La Cultura de Pinar del Rio. “Nació en Guanajay el 19 de marzo de 1899 y fallece el 26 noviembre de 1986. Soprano. Profesora de piano, solfeo y teoría de la música. Graduada de canto en el Conservatorio Nacional Hubert de Blanck de La Habana. Comenzó sus estudios con los maestros italianos Tina Farelli y Arturo Bovi y los continuó en Milán, lugar donde inició su carrera de soprano. Permaneció en Italia 4 años, desarrollando conciertos y representaciones operáticas. En 1924 debutó en Roma como primera figura de la ópera "Rigoletto". Recorre con gran éxito escenarios deEspaña, México, New York. Varias creaciones de autores cubanos fueron concebidas especialmente para su voz. Se presentó en programas de radio y ocasionalmente en TV. Fue Socia de Honor de la Asociación de Cultura Musical de San José, Costa Rica. Miembro de Número del Instituto Internacional de Estudios Americanos de México. Recibió más de 20 diplomas de honor por su actuación en Cuba y en el extranjero y obtuvo además medallas y honores que le concedieron instituciones públicas y privadas por su labor artística.”
Escambray staff 2005 (accessed 3-2-07) KMilo en Yaguajay includes items in different sections: ”Cronología del héroe …Octubre 8(all dates in 1958): Camilo y sus hombres arriban al campamento de Félix Torres, en Jobo Rosado, Yaguajay….“Octubre 9: Camilo comienza a hacer contacto con fuerzas del Movimiento 26 de Julio y del Partido Socialista Popular, para definir nexos con la guerrilla y apoyar la misión de la columna del Che en su avance hacia el Escambray. Redacta informe a Fidel.Octubre 27: Fuerzas de la columna invasora, con Camilo al frente, atacan agrupación enemiga en la carretera Caibarién-Yaguajay, con saldo de siete soldados muertos y cinco heridos, y la captura de abundante parque militar….Octubre 30: Fuerzas rebeldes atacan el cuartel de Venegas, logrando su rendición. Octubre 31: Entre el 15 de octubre, fecha del primer encuentro con tropas de la tiranía en el norte de Las Villas, hasta este día, los rebeldes arrebatan al enemigo, más de 50 armas largas, 27 cortas, 20 granadas de mano y de fusil y unos 4 mil proyectiles, además de numerosos equipos militares….Castro writes an order to Camilo (Orden militar Sierra Maestra, agosto 18, 58, 9 a.m.) “Las armas que se ocupen al enemigo serán preferentemente destinadas a la organización de unidades locales.” (this differs condisiderable from orders in Oriente, before la “Ofensiva” to send all weapons to headquarters L.D.)…. “Informe de Fidel a Camilo Sierra Maestra Oct. 14.58 Es inconcebible la actitud de Menoyo procediendo a desarmar y detener a Bordón y a sus fuerzas, según noticias recibidas aquí que ojalá no sean ciertas, pero de serlo hay que exigirle la inmediata devolución de las armas que pertenecen al Movimiento y la libertad de los arrestados. …..No caer jamás en provocaciones ni en conflictos bizantinos. Actuar siempre con gran altura. Eso es lo que nos ganará la confianza y el respaldo de la masa. Esa masa tiene que ver como un acto de incalificable traición el desarme de los hombres del 26 de Julio en Las Villas, dejándolos impotentes para apoyar a nuestras columnas cuando avanzaban penosamente por Camagüey. Eso aquí y en cualquier parte del mundo es traición y el procedimiento mediante el cual, según informes, fueron desarmados Bordón y sus hombres, un vulgar acto de gangsterismo.”
Estefanía, Carlos Manuel (accessed 4-9-07) El trotskismo: vida y muerte de una alternativa obrera no estalinista. “El fundador del trotskismo cubano fue Sandalio Junco, uno de los más prominentes líderes negros del Partido Comunista de Cuba. Había sido secretario general de la Confederación Nacional Obrera de Cuba (CNOC), controlada por los comunistas, hasta que fue obligado a exiliarse por Gerardo Machado en 1928… Junco estuvo en el exterior durante cuatro años en los que colaboró con Julio Antonio Mella en México”
Evans, Walker (Photographer), and Andrei Codrescu 2001 Walker Evans: Cuba (Hardcover) J. Paul Getty Trust Publications ISBN: 0892366176
Farlex (accessed 4-6-07) In Serbian language, the plural term "grobari" refers to individuals who work on or manage a cemetery (gravediggers or undertakers)
Fernandez, Esteban 2007 El Criminal cubano. La Voz de Cuba Libre From: "LVDCL"> Date: Fri, March 2, 2007 10:12 am To: “En La Campaña (de Escambray L.D.) un cubano (comunista) llamado Félix Torres asesinó a cientos de campesinos. Y cubanos (comunistas) se han fajado por participar en los pelotones de fusilamientos para recibir 50 pesos más de sueldo al mes...”
Fernández, Frank (Preface: Lily Litvak, Prologue: Francisco Olaya Morales) 2000 El anarquismo en Cuba (Colección Cuadernos libertarios /6) Fundación de Estudios Libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo, Madrid ISBN 8486864410 p. 15 (Prologue) “Es igualmente excelente y no merece ninguna objeción, el análisis que hace del Partido Comunista y sus dirigentes (my emphasis L.D), y la discontinuidad que se documenta y queda puesta en evidencia, entre los discursos propagandísticos y su colaboración avergonzante con dictadores del temple de de Gerardo Machado, Fulgencio Batista y Fidel Castro, en la represion, la multilacion, y el asesinato de los defensores de la libertad y de la justicia social.” p. 32-33 “Y efectivamente el Primero de Mayo de 1890, con la asistencia de 3,000 obreros, desfilaron por las calles habaneras, conmemorando por primera vez en Cuba el dia de los Habaneros.” (One notes this first Cuban commemoration of that awful consecration in blood, and one does not know what the dead Chicago police would say about that L.D.). p. 64 “Unos pocos días después de terminado el congreso (Obrero, February 1925, Cienfuegos p. 62), se funda en La Habana el PCC por militantes marxistas como Julio Antonio Mella o exanarquistas como Carlos Baliño … y obedeciendo ordenes desde México disponía el Kominterm … tratan de liquidar después todo vestigio del anarcosindicalismo que durante muchos años había sido el motor propulsor de la clase obrera.” p. 67 “…el PCC…(ya habían participado en la farsa electoral de 1932) … la traicion del PCC (they attacked the anarcosindicalistas “home-base” at Zulueta 37, Havana). p. 76 talks of the anarchist collectives in the coffee regions of south Oriente Province where left of center resistance to the communist government was apparent at least as late as 1961(e.g. Baracoa, La Sierra Maestra see Barredo Medina, 2006). p. 79 During the terms of the democratically elected Auténtico presidents the anarchists regained strength from the communists in the labor unions. p. 89 “La oposición al anarcosindicalismo emanaba directamente del M26J (Castro’s organization LD) instigado por los elementos del PCC infiltrados dentro de la esta organización que en un principio tomo casi militarmente la dirección de todos los sindicatos de la isla. P. 94 Anarquist publications such as Agustín Souchy’s “Testimonio sobre la Revolución Cubana” were destroyed after printing. P. 96-97 MAS (anarquist labor activists) guerrillas rose against Castro and were destroyed.
Fernández Dones, Teresa (accessed 1-14-07) ¿Cómo fue impuesto el Comunismo en Cuba? Contacto Cuba, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Fernández Robaina, Tomás 1983 Recuerdos secretos de dos mujeres públicas. Editorial Letras Cubanas, La Habana p. 18 “Al cabo de los años, comprendí por qué las de las bares miraban con cierta superioridad a las de los balluses.”
Figueroa Enríquez, Walkiria 2005 (accessed 1-14-06) Rinden homenaje a Fabio Grobart. Granma (official organ of the Central Committee) La Habana, miércoles 31 de agosto de 2005. Año 9 / Número 243 “La huella y ejemplo de Fabio, dijo, están presentes en cada página de la historia del Partido, y en las ideas que defiende y se alzan victoriosas en nuestra Patria.”
Film Museum Berlin 2000 (accessed 5-5-07) Newsletter No.16 October, 27th 2000” …And then she became pregnant. …Marlene plainly told Otto [Katz] that he was the father of the child she bore on December 12, 1924.”
Flewers, Paul 1995 (accessed 4-10-07) From the Red Flag to the Union Jack: The Rise of Domestic Patriotism in the Communist Party of Great Britain. New Interventions, 6 (2) “Stalin’s address to the eighteenth congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 10 March 1939 discounted any idea of German designs on the Soviet Union. He noted that "the majority of the non-aggressive countries, particularly England and France", had "rejected the policy of collective security", yet he made no call for a Soviet alliance with them, and only vaguely stated that would support nations which were "victims of aggression". He declared that, whilst admitting that the "non-aggressive states" were "making concession after concession to the aggressors", the Soviet Union was continuing its "policy of peace and of strengthening business relations with all countries," and intended: "To be cautious and not allow our country to be drawn into conflicts by warmongers who are accustomed to have others pull the chestnuts out of the fire for them."19 This was intended to warn the democratic powers that they could not necessarily rely upon the automatic support of the Soviet Union in the event of war. Stalin was publicly making the none-too-subtle implication that some form of deal between the Soviet Union and Germany could not be ruled out.”
Franqui, Carlos 1984 (foreword by G. Cabrera Infante and translated by Alfred MacAdam from Spanish 1981 version) Family portrait with Fidel. 1985 edition Random House First Vintage Books, New York. ISBN 0394726200 p. xv by G. Cabrera Infante talks about Francisco Ciutat de Miguel (here called F. Cutah, as being the chief general at the Bay of Pigs, not Castro. The author talks about the founding of the milicia on May first of 1959 to be later taken over by “Russo-Castroites” on pages 32-34. Pages 36-38 talk about the fall from power of Humberto Sori Marin starting May 17th 159 when Sori Marin fails to attend signing of first agricultural reform ”law.” Pages 111-128 present information on repression in Escambray and command by Ciutat and fighting during the Bay of Pigs, and even Celia Sanchez’s replacement by a communist.
García, Pedro Antonio 2005a (accessed 6-1-07) Antonio Guiteras Un hombre de la Revolución Bohemia (digital) 29 de abril de 2005 As is common with dead Cuban heroes, the Cuban communist party portrays Guiteras as one of their own and precursor of Castro. This is odd since Guiteras and the communists, including Grobart, were publicly at odds (e.g. Estefanía, 2001). However, a case can be made that Guiteras was a covert communist, and such is supported by analysis of his actions, and his ideology; and by the opinion of Spruille Braden, US Ambassador to Cuba in that era that time (see Caballero, 2002). One notes in this case that the “traitor” (Batista comandante Carmelo González a childhood friend as is “narrated” here was killed later in an assassination attributed to Guitera’s own group). One also notes in this account the presence of women at the site of action (“Una de las muchachas, Xiomara O’Halloran, avistó el primer vehículo.”) prior to the killings was portrayed as an orgy of women and cocaine in a personal communication to me from my stepfather Enrique Sanz Sariol. The presence of available women is reminiscent of the murder of Julio Antonio Mella almost certainly attributable to the Cuban communists, and as such perhaps this is another example of the “charity” of Fabio Grobart towards those he directed to be condemned, or perhaps merely a way to “prepare” his victims for their fate.
García, Pedro Antonio 2005b (accessed 3-15-07) Fabio Grobart. Eslabón de unidad entre generaciones de comunistas, Granma 8-30-2005. G o o g l e's cache of as retrieved on Dec 25, 2006 06:50:32 GMT “Lograr entrevistarlo no fue fácil. En sus últimos años (falleció el 22 de octubre de 1994)”
García Montes, Jorge and Antonio Alonso Ávila 1970 Historia del Partido Comunista en Cuba. Ediciones Universal, Miami. Page 116 Fabio Grobart and Dora Vainstock were arrested several times, and finally deported October 1, 1932, on the Holland American Liner Leederman to Holland. Dora Vainstock left Holland and went to Paris, where, through mediation of a highly placed friend in the Machado Government she obtained a false passport as a Cuban citizen; she left through Hamburg to Cuba arriving in March of 1933. Fabio Grobart stayed out of Cuba until after Machado fell; he went from Holland to Berlin where he met with Rubén Martínez who had just left Moscow and was on the way to Cuba, via New York. Grobart stayed in Germany until the beginning of 1933 when the German Communist Party was uprooted by the Nazis after the Reichtag fire (night of February 27, 1933), then the senior communist party members and Grobart fled to Moscow. Page 141: Julio Antonio Mella’s ashes arrive from Mexico on September 28th 1933, Grobart is part of honor guard; Mella’s funeral is held on January 29th 1934 riot breaks out a police captain and an unidentified young man are killed. Batista forces start crack down on communists. Pages 157-158: February 1934 Grobart is prominent in first meeting of “Primer Congreso National de la Liga Juvenil Comunista.” Pages 180-188: Grobart councils working with Batista’s government, in March 1936 he is arrested under false name, released six months later and continues organizing. Pages 190-194: February 1935 At a party meeting on a farm near the Cuban Army Barracks at Managua Province of Havana, Grobart calls for flexibility with the Batista controlled government. Page 219: Communist party legalized September 13, 1938, Grobart is named as member of Central committee. Page 362: These authors place Ernest Hemingway talking to “El Tigre” (Rolando Masferrer, a veteran of the Spanish Civil War and then a soon to be expelled communist party leader) in the Havana Soviet Embassy on November 7 1945. At the time, according to these authors, Blas Roca and Fabio Grobart were desperately trying to stop Masferrer from leaving the communist party. At this event Masferrer refuses to shake the hand of Cuban communist leader Anibal Escalante.
Gordievsky, Oleg and Christopher Andrew 1990 KGB: The Inside Story. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0340485612.,”… in late 1959 Fidel Castro's intelligence chief Ramiro Valdés contacted the KGB in Mexico City, the Soviets sent over one hundred mostly Spanish-speaking advisors, including Enrique Líster Forján, to organize the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution in Cuba. p. 467.
Grobart, Fabio 1940 XV años de Lucha (En el Aniversario del Partido Comunista). Ediciones Sociales, Havana p. 5 ”..fructificaba la siembra social de Diego Vicente Tejera, de Carlos Baliño, de Manzanillo….” p. 16 “”Nuestro partido ha crecido y se ha desarrollado en la lucha contra todos las ideologías extrañas a la clase obrera, contra el anarquismo, reformismo y trotskismo…”
Grobart, Fabio 1974a Preguntas y respuestas sobre los años 30: Fabio Grobart en la Escuela de Historia. Centro de Información Científica y Técnica In: Universidad De La Habana. No. 73-200
Grobart, Fabio 1974b Prólogo, In: Nuñez Machin, Ana.- 1974 Rubén Martínez Villena. Incluye en apéndice amplia antología en prosa y verso. Editorial Ciencias Sociales, La Habana. 2ªed.(GET)
Grobart, Fabio 1975 The Cuban working class movement from 1925-1933. Science and Society 29 (Spring 75), 73-102,
Grobart, Fabio, 1978 Prólogo, In: Mella, JA, Escritos Revolucionarios, Mexico D.F., Siglo Veintiuno, pp. 23-. The Agrupación Comunista de La Habana had been founded in 1923
Grobart, F.1978 La Primera Organización de los Jóvenes Comunistas Cubanos. (Artículo). Suplemento Especial. Juventud Rebelde, 12 de diciembre de 1978. Source used by Elvira Díaz Vallina [2003 (accessed 6-10-07) in “las relaciones políticas entre la Universidad y los Gobiernos de la Republica de Cuba: 1902-1959] to support orthodox communist theory.
Grobart, Fabio 1979 in Marinello, Juan Marinello: recopilación de textos sobre... - (Número dedicado a Juan Marinello, con textos de Raúl Castro, Carlos Rafael Rodríguez, Victor V. Volski, Nicolás Guillén, Alejo Carpentier, Mirta Aguirre, Benjamín Carrión, Miguel Acosta Laignes, José Antonio Portuondo, Julio de Rverend, Paul Estrada, Oldric Belic, Efraín Huerta, Luis Cardozas y Aragón, Alfredo Gravina, Darñio Puccini, Luis Enrique Délaro, Vera kuteischikova, J. Griguderich, César Fernández Moreno, Adalbert Dessau, José z. Tallet, Regino Pedroso, Alberto Ruz Lhuillier, Sergio Aguirre, Dora Alonso, Ludnig Renn, Pierre Gamarra, Alejandro Romualdo, Héctor Mugica, Fabio Grobart, Roberto Fernández Retamar, Cintio Vitier, Savador Arias, Manuel Galich, Marío Benedetti) - La Habana,1979 - 781p - Próloga Trinidad Pérez - Láms. entre texto - Poesía, poética - (Casa De Las Americas / Centro de Investigaciones Literarias; Serie Valoración Múltiple (GET) [], CPLA, jul – ago. de 1977, a XVIII, n. 103, pp.2 – 104.
Grobart, Fabio 1981 (accessed 5-10-07) De la vida del partido. El proceso de formación del Partido Comunista de Cuba, condensed by communist party from an article in: Cuba Socialista 1981 (1 diciembre). This version only hints that the meeting took place in that particular villa in Cojímar that I describe in my manuscript (Daley, “Narrations of War in Cuba” in preparation).
Grobart, Fabio 1985a reprinted from a speech given to Pioneros first printed in Pionero 1980 number 828 August 16, 1980 In: Martín, Alda Matilde (editor) Grobart, Fabio Un Forjador Eternamente Joven,, Editorial Gente Nueva. Havana. Pp. 13-19
Grobart, Fabio 1985b Preguntas y respuestas sobre los años 30. En sus: Trabajos escogidos. Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, C. de La Habana, p. 93 GET
Grobart Sunshine, Fabio. (circa 2004, accessed last 1-18-07) La “Nueva Economía” génesis y decadencia del concepto (apuntes para un debate).
Grossman, Dave 1996 On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society. Back Bay Books (Little, Brown and Company) New York ISBN 0316330116
Guanche, Julio César 2002 (accessed 6-8-07) La imaginación contra la norma, Ocho enfoques sobre la República cubana de 1902, La Habana, junio de 2002 pp. 24-25 “Entre 1939 y 1941 muchos escritores y artistas abandonaron el Partido a raíz del pacto Molotov-Ribbentrop —como prueba de su no aceptación de la alianza entre la Alemania fascista y la URSS— o se retiraron cuando el Partido se alió a Batista para las elecciones del cuarenta. De ahí se fue María Villar Buceta, quien no obstante continuó su línea revolucionaria (tanto que la Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios a quien invitó en los años cincuenta a celebrar un aniversario de la muerte de Rubén fue a ella, que estaba desvinculada del Partido, como también lo estaba su hermana Aurora). No puedo precisar si Lino Novás Calvo se fue, o si lo expulsaron, también se fue Carlos Montenegro. Otros siguieron en las filas, pero no. La imaginación contra la norma - Julio César Guanche mantuvieron posiciones acríticas. He visto cartas de Mirta Aguirre a José Antonio Portuondo criticando duramente al Partido por esa política. No lo hizo públicamente —las cartas eran personales— pero no guardó silencio.”
Guevara, Ernesto (El Che) (accessed from my files 6-12-07) Pasajes de la guerra revolucionaria file p. 41 “Emprendimos camino de noche y pernoctamos en la casa de un solitario campesino llamado el Vizcaíno, por su origen, ya en las faldas del Turquino. El Vizcaíno vivía totalmente solo en un pequeño bohío y sus únicos amigos eran unos libros marxistas, cuidadosamente guardados en una cueva (en un pequeño agujero debajo de una piedra) lejos de su bohío. Manifestó con orgullo su militancia marxista, que muy poca gente en la zona conocía. El Vizcaíno nos mostró el camino para seguir y continuamos nuestra lenta marcha.”
Hackett, Charles W. 1933 Guerrilla Warfare in Cuba. Current History July 1933, 469-471.
Hernandez, Oswaldo F. (accessed 6/14/2007) Criminal Action Against a Once Friendly People and Nation. Guaracabuya. Google cache at “It is now just becoming public knowledge that when Castro briefly resided in New York before he began his “revolutionary struggle” in 1956, an abominable individual in Cuba’s history, known in Cuba as Arturo Montenegro, but then known in the U.S. Department of State as William Wieland, and who was a high official of the same, invited Castro to the most elitist, powerful, and illegal and unconstitutional Council of Foreign Relations, where he spoke and was very well received. William Wieland, when known as Arturo Montenegro in Cuba, had not only been a member of the Cuban Communist Party, but he actually became the lover of American ambassador to Cuba, Benjamin Sumner Welles, and of his successor, Jefferson Caffery (late 1920s, early 1930s). It is a well known fact in Cuba, that in those days the American Embassy in Havana was known as a “den of iniquity,” where the American diplomats where constantly harassing and attempting to “pick up” the members of the Cuban police and army units protecting the site. After Caffery left Cuba, him and Sumner Welles soon took their American-Cuban lover to Washington, where he fast became a “high-level official,” being either head of the Caribbean or the Latin American Bureau at the time of the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
Hernández Martín, Juan Carlos 2005 (accessed 5-15-07) Cuaderno Histórico de Consolación del Sur con una Cronología mínima desde 1690 hasta 2005. Universitaria Municipal de Consolación del Sur, - Supplemental Result “1943…Regresa a consolación del Sur enviado por Fabio Grobart el dirigente obrero Concepción Azcuy con el objetivo de reorganizar los sindicatos del ramo del tabaco.”
Hernández Serrano, Luis 1999 (accessed 14/06/2007) Tienes sangre de patriota, Juventud Rebelde viernes, 3 de enero del 2003 “Así comienza el testimonio de Evelio Rodríguez Acuña, uno de los campesinos que dio albergue a los expedicionarios del Granma poco tiempo después del desembarco del 2 de diciembre de 1956. ….Sus ojos se encendieron con el recuerdo y sonrió como satisfecho de que mantenía sus nostalgias vivas: “Desde 1928 entré al Partido Socialista Popular (PSP) en el Boniato de Pilón, a través de Félix Sánchez. Yo he sido un bruto, pero inteligente. ¿Qué le parece? Lo digo, porque entre el mal y el bien, me quedé con el bien. Un día llega a mis manos un libro comunista que alguien quería quemar y digo que para quemarlo hay que quemarme a mí también.”
Honegger, Gitta 2005 Prague writer Lenka Reinerova: Kafka's Last Living Heir Modernism/modernity - Volume 12 (4, November 2005) 659-677 “Otto Katz, alias André Simon. Many more were kept at Ruzynĕ prison under phony charges of "Zionism," "Titoism," espionage, and other interactions with Western imperialists. Returned "Mexicans" were targeted as Trotzkyist conspirators, even if, like Reinerová, they arrived in Mexico long after Trotzky's assassination by a Stalinist in Mexico City in 1940.”
Hudson, Rex A. 1988 and José F. Sánchez 2005 (accessed 1-14-07) Castro's America Department. Coordinating Cuba's support for Marxist-Leninist violence in the Americas. La Nueva Cuba Octubre 30, 2005 “After taking control of the DGI, the KGB compelled Castro to replace its chief, Manuel Piñeiro, with José Méndez Cominches in 1969. (26) One theory posited that the Soviets had not forgiven Piñeiro, a Castro loyalist, for thwarting a KGB plot -in collusion with a pro-Soviet "microfaction" of the PCC/CC- to oust Castro in early 1968 and replace him with a party member more amenable to Moscow's orders. (27) Nevertheless, Castro kept Piñeiro in his other position as MININT vice minister, and also gave him supervisory control over the 400-member DL staff. Gerardo Peraza, a former DGI official who defected in 1971, affirmed that the Soviets had "allowed Castro to take Manuel Piñeiro away and name him head of the Department of Liberation, and the intelligence service remained under the orders of Colonel Simonov." (28) Peraza added that the Soviets tried to "bolster Fidel Castro's ego" by giving him "the power or the freedom to work against the Latin American countries, such as Nicaragua, El Salvador."”
IDMb contributor (accessed 3-5-07) Goofs for Story of G.I. Joe (1945) IMDb “Continuity: In the scene where Pvt. Dondaro encounters an Italian woman in a village, he is carrying a Browning submachine. But when he moves outside to resume combat, he is carrying a Thompson submachine gun”
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (Organization of American States) 1983 (accessed 1-14-06) The situation of human rights in Cuba seventh report OEA/Ser.L/V/II.61 Doc. 29 rev. 1 4 October 1983 “Since the defeat and imprisonment in 1968 of the so-called “microfaction” within the Cuban Communist Party, led by Anibal Escalante, there has been no effective opposition to political power in Cuba.”
Iskhakov, D.M., L.V. Sagitova and I.L. Izmailov 2004-2005 The Tatar National Movement of the 1980s-90s Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia 43(3 Winter), 11-44. cite on p.44 “An example of an older-generation Tartar “rural prose” writer is Gumer Bashirov, whose novel Namus (honor) was about a Tatar kolkhoz.”
de Juan, Santiago 2007a personal communications Subject: Re: Juan Vives at Santa Clara question From: Date: Sun, February 25, 2007 11:54 pm To: Larry, I agree with you, Vivés is confused. But still, I did not see a single Thompson during the fight. I did changed my M-1 Carbine for one AFTER, or on the 1st. of January, 1959. I got that Tommy (without the wooden stock) and 3 mags. That was a heavy weapon to carry and not good for the type of fighting, as I don't recall any of the enemies being closer than a block or two away. But after the revolution, the Tommy was much better, for the it is a powerful weapon for short distance and even the presence of it is scary. Saludos, Santiago Re: Juan Vives at Santa Clara question From: Date: Sun, February 25, 2007 1:54 am To: In a message dated 02/24/07 11:32:41 A.M. Eastern Standard Time, writes: While puzzling through Juan Vivés book “Los Amos de Cuba” seeking information on Fabio Grobart a certain passage came to my attention. Do you know anything about the following and could you be so kind to comment on it. Juan Vivés has a different and far more complete version of Fabio Grobart’s activities. Vivés’ is an interesting character himself, according to his book “Los Amos de Cuba” he fought at in Las Villas Province in 1958 at the age of 14. His (Vivés) age would be one year younger than that of William Garcia, son (“nephew”) of famed “tennis shoe bandit Edesio Hernandez. William was a companion of mine in the escopetero group “La Gente de Mojena” as mentioned in several accounts, and who at that tender age killed a Batista soldier in a pool hall in Guisa to take his weapon. Thus that is credible. On the 22 of December 1958 Juan Vivés, writes he steals a WWII type .45 caliber Browning Submachine gun, from his group leader Comandante Rolando Cubela leaving his own weapon an unspecified ancient double barrel shotgun or rifle. Vivés fights with this weapon during the Placetas and subsequent actions, while his commander is forced to use the ancient weapon. (Santiago responds) Larry: On December 22, 1958, we descended from Guinia de Miranda into Placetas. It was dark, so I would say the time we left Güinia was about 8:00 PM. I happened to be in a Jeep right in from of the one Rolando (Cubela) was riding. At that time, he was carrying an M-3 Carbine. I saw Rolando again about 2:00 PM on the 23 at a Gas Station on Carretera Central. He was sitting at a desk talking on the phone. I had to cross the Carretera Central (on foot) but was warned of a sniper on the roof of a building opposite of the Gas Station. Of course, I hesitated for a few minutes. I remember that Rolando's M-3 was resting on the desk, by his side. By the way, I crossed the road attracting some gun fire from the sniper. Placetas was about to surrender at this time and the reason I need to cross the road was because I heard some barbudos were about to blow up the Compañia de Telefonos, to stop that stupidity. When I came back about an hour later, I heard Rolando was hit by the sniper on his arm. Placetas surrendered about 4:00 PM. By the time we took over the whole town, it was already night again. We had a meeting (Che Guevara with a few of his staff and Chomon and some other officers of Directorio) just past midnight. Next morning, at 6:00 AM I left Placetas, to Santa Clara, Cienfuegos and Matanzas. I came back to Santa Clara on the 26 of December. I know that from Placetas to Camajuani, the road is very narrow. From Camajuani to Caibarien and Remedios (they are very close) is a good road. But to travel that distance in just a couple of day, engage in battle at three different locations is something beyond my comprehension. Then, while in Santa Clara. How could a person be at Loma de Chapiro (tren Blindado) La Carcel, and the other locations Audiencia, Palacio de Gobernacion, Gran Hotel, etc., todos estan (around) alrededor del mismo Parque Vidal) in such a short time and with the city under siege? Another thing: In the meetings at El Pedrero, headquarters for el Directorio, I doubt that a 14 years old (would) be present. Besides, I don't think the stealing of such a weapon …and (that of )to the Commander in Chief of the group would be allowed. Furthermore, if later on it is found that he stole and has the weapon, Che, who was with the 26 of July did not have the authority to grant it to the thief. Many who write about that time and who were witness to the facts, fail to mention that there was a lot of friction between el Che and a few Majors of the Directorio, among them, Raul Nieves and Raul Diaz Arguelles. If I ever knew a person with balls, that was Raul Nieves. He did not hesitate in pulling the trigger and eliminate any of our enemies. Diaz Arguelles was well known in Havana for being a happy trigger too, so a match of wits between any of the Raul(s) and el Che, I put my money on the Rauls. I do not doubt that Mr. Vivés participated in the actions above described, but about stealing weapons, that's another story. I remember that, having a San Cristobal (that lousy two trigger Dominican Republic's carbine) was ambitioned by any of the rebels and they guarded them as their biggest treasure. Just a couple of days ago, I was thinking about you. The reason is because I have not seen any email from you in a while. I was about to write you when I saw this message. I hope everything is okay with you. Saludos, Santiago (my message continues after this L.D. Vivés reports he is allowed to keep the weapon because of protection by Ernesto Guevara, who calls him “El Estudiante.” And he also used this weapon at Remedios, Caibarién, Camajani (tren blindado), Colina de Capiro, la comisaría de policía (where Roberto Rodríguez “El Vaquerito” was killed by a sniper), la cárcel, la sala de audiencias, el palacio de Gobernación, and against the snipers in the Gran Hotel in Santa Clara. Vivés also talks about a Frenchman Lavandiera firing a .30 caliber machine gun (apparently a crew served weapon, probably a Browning 1919 L.D.), against B-26 bombers during the action at Loma de Capiro References Pudlow, Jan 2003 (updated 7-1-05, accessed 2-24-07) Smith: America’s Lawyer, Florida Bar Journal November 2003 pp. 8 and ff. John Arthur Jones, partner at Holland & Knight is quote as saying “It was Harvey Smith. His outfit was going south. I was getting ready to go north. We visited for 15 minutes, and I didn’t see him again. What he did was give me a Browning submachine gun. I carried a pistol and a MI rifle. He gave me a Browning automatic 45-caliber submachine gun. I took it and carried it the rest of the war.” Vivés, Juan (Translated to Spanish from 1981 Les Maîtres de Cuba. Opera Mundi, Paris by Zoraida Valcarcel) 1982 Los Amos de Cuba. EMCÉ Editores, Buenos Aires. ISBN 9500400758. take care and be well Larry Daley
Johnson, Ed 2007 (accessed 6-15-07) Syria Must End Interference in Lebanon, U.S. Says After Bombing. Bloomberg. “Yesterday's bombing comes days after Prime Minister Fouad Siniora's government began forming the tribunal ordered by the UN, the news agency said. ``The special tribunal for Lebanon must be allowed to do its work so that those behind the assassination of former Prime Minister Hariri and related crimes can be brought to justice,'' said Bush. ``The assault on Lebanese state institutions by terrorists and armed extremists, cross-border arms trafficking, and efforts by the regimes in Damascus and Tehran to foment instability in Lebanon must stop now.'' ”
de Juan, Santiago 2007b Personal communication Subject: Re: Footnoted letter from General Calixto Enamorado to his daughter Rosita G...From: Date: Fri, March 23, 2007 2:31 am To:
Hi Larry: Reading your paper I notice this. I think you should research a little more about the dates. I don't remember the date CMQ was seized (intervenida) but I'm positive that not all of the media, specially the radio stations, where seized by the "end of May 1960". The reason I"m so positive about this is because, on June 1, 1960, was the day we decided to change the programing of CMGX Radiotiempo, Matanzas. The change, which was recorded with the Direccion de Radio y Television, a department of the Ministry of Communication a few weeks earlier consisted in changing the two Half an hour News Program, one at 12 noon and the other one at 6:00 PM. Instead of these two half-hour long programs, which the fidelistas in our news department used for communist propaganda, a three-minutes news bulletin every thirty minutes will stop them on their tracks. They knew this was the intention for the change but there was little they could do to stop us, as we did not go outside the frame of the "law". We advertized the change at least a couple of week before the first of June. My partner, myself and a body guard were in Matanzas early on that they. The employees got their orders. All we could do was wait until 12 noon. As a matter of fact, the whole city of Matanzas was anxiously waiting. The opinion was divided. Some bet (that) the employees will not obey the orders of the administration and some disagree. Coming 12 noon, the thirty minutes program WAS AIRED. We were prepared for that eventuality. We had drafted a paper explaining to the audience the reasons why we made the change. The reason was that we were the owners of the radio station and have the right to do any change we thought was for the benefit of the station and the audience.
This paper we were planning to air it on the 6:00 PM spot. As soon as the program ended at 12:30 PM, we canvassed the City of Matanzas, visiting not only those business that patronized the station with advertisement but most of all business we could. The consensus among those businesses owners was that, there was little we could do. By 5:00 PM we headed toward the Studios of the Station. With us (was) the local Manager, a young man from Matanzas. He was also a radio announcer. Also, a couple of radio announcers (locutores) whom were on our side. A few blocks before we reached the Studio, one of those locutores left us at a street corner while he went for cigarette. Since time was passing and he was not coming back, the other radio announcer went for him. Neither one came back, so it was up to the Manager to read the document. We arrived at the Studios about 15 minutes before 6:00. The Studio was on a second floor of a building just across the Park and Church, at the heart of the City. On the stairs landing, the Manager crying felt into his knees, begging us to forgive him, for he could NOT read that document. He was too scared to do it. My partner slapped him and went to the Police Station to file a complain against the employees. I went up with the bodyguard. The journalists and other employees kept on going on their plans to air the second news program, disregarding my presence there. A couple of minutes before the hour, I handed my body guard the P-38 I always carried and told him to use it on anyone who tried to shut down the station by getting to the main breaker, just a few feet away. He refused the weapon and instead armed himself with a piece of galvanized 1 inch water pipe, about three feet long that we kept to lock the door. I ordered the radio operator to play the Polish March we used as a prelude to each news program and to let it play its full length, then open the microphone to my cabin and leave. He offered to monitor my voice to what I reject his offer. I did not trust him. Another measure I ordered was that all the speakers in front of the building facing the park be turned on. We did this only on very special occasions only. I knew that if Manolo was able to stop anyone trying to reach the breakers, the only other way to shut down the station was from the equipment at the tower, a few kilometers away and that will give enough time to read the document. As soon as the operator left the cabin, I started to read. But the document was too diluted, to weak. So, I decided just to talk, speak my mind. For almost 30 minutes it was all I did...and then left the building. What I encountered when I reach the street was indescribable. The park was full of people. The Cafe that served as a Bus Station (this was on Carretera Central) for many bus lines, was full of people and a few buses that were supposed to leave stayed to hear. The passengers were arguing as the opinion was divided. My throat was dry due to the time talking and the adrenaline, and I ask the bartender for a glass of water. He did not pay much attention to me as he was also involved in the arguments. Then he recognized me and tried to announce it, but I stopped him. I knew it was not safe to do that at that particular moment. He gave me the glass of water, shook my hand while wearing a broad smile. Next, I went for my car to go to the police station and fetch my partner. The radio in my car was set to my station, so as soon as we got in, I heard part of my speech (selected and compromising excerpts) and then the voice of the locutor announcing that, in a few minutes, at 6:45 PM, the time at which ALL radio stations in Cuba will hook on to transmit "La Hora del F.I.E.L." (Frente Independiente de Emisoras Libres) will originate in Radiotiempo de Matanzas. By the time I reached the police station and walked back to my car with my partner, what was coming out of the radio could not be more threatening to our security. The announcers were blasting our names, accusing us of traitors and inciting the public to stop us before we reach the Mexican Embassy in Havana. When my partner heard that (he was a professor at Escuela de Comercio de Habana) and 17 years older than me but a natural born rebel, he jumped and embraced me, and thanked me, for I have just reaffirmed him that there were still cojones in Cuba. Hearing this story, someone from Matanzas who was there when it happened but who did not know me until a few years ago, told me something that it was a first to me. He said that, going back to the time, he believes the last time a free expression was heard in Cuba was on that afternoon. I tend to agree with him as even with other stations besides CMHL, we never again went on the air to say anything that was not what dictated the regime. I could not press my employees to take the risk of speaking their minds. So, on June 1st. 1960, at 6:30 PM Radiotiempo de Matanzas was
"intervenida". However, my other radio station, CMHL Radiotiempo de Sancti
Spiritus was not. I left Cuba in October 24, 1960 and CMHL was still on the air. I believe, a month later, there was a government resolution that seized, not only
all the remaining radio, TV and written press but also thousand of other business.
Overall, I think you did a great job with this paper. Saludos, Santiago
Soon the media is throttled, on March 31, 1960 CMQ the premier Cuban TV
station is seized by the government._[1]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn1)
By the end of May 1960, all media is in the hands of the Castro government, the last were the pro-Catholic daily Diario de la Marina and the independent Prensa Libre, Cuba's largest newspapers were seized._[2]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn2) _[1]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref1) Inter-American Commision on
Human Rights, 1983 _[2]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref2) Time Monday, May. 30, 1960
de Juan, Santiago 2007c Personal communication Date: Mon, 4 Jun 2007 22:49:46 EDT
From: To: Subject: Re: [Fwd: Re: Trying to find out more about Otto Ott] Larry: The area in question I visited a few times in 1953, and the only reason was because it was very cheap and I was very young (18) for it was not safe at all, specially when I visited, late at night. Calle Zanja (Shanghai Theater area) and Pajarito provided same entertainment, safer but at a steeper price. The bars in the area sold beer (that's all we drank) for a dime a glass being the difference the looks of the girls who charged fifty cents for an hour of pleasure or till we lasted, which ever came first. Sometimes she saw a few of us in one hour. Traveling back to that time makes me realize how inexperience we were, however, I will trade all the experience acquired and most of the material things I really do not use, for the youth, the vigor and the impetuous and risk took. We really were invincible.
Kansas City Star2007 (accessed 5-5-07) Flirting, writ large letters between Ernest Hemingway and Marlene Dietrich reveal volumes correspondence. The Kansas City Star (Kansas City, Missouri) | Date: 4/8/2007 “Last Monday 30 letters from Hemingway to Dietrich were opened to the public. Dietrich's daughter, Maria Riva, had given them a few years ago to the JFK Library's Ernest Hemingway Collection, asking that they be kept under wraps until this year.”
Kantor, Myles 2007 Personal communications Subject: Re: Fabio Grobart Re: When Cuba Was A Nation Of Immigrants From: "Larry Daley" Date: Fri, April 6, 2007 6:59 am To: "Myles Kantor" Cc: "Larry Daley" Myles: Thank you very much. That helps a great deal. It seems I must make it clear that most Jews left Cuba when Castro turned dictator, only a few perhaps 8% stayed and not all of these were from the extreme left. Right now I am exploring the possibility that "Fabio Grobart" operated as the "dwarf/midget Nazi" spy Otto Ott, owner of the Swiss Home Restaurant, during the "Saint Louis" tragedy. It is world wide common place that a restaurant-bar can be a cover for prostitution; and such are often used by intelligence services. If you recall that seems to have been during the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact (signed formally August 19th 1938, but negotiations were hinted at by Stalin on March 10th 1939 ) when communists and Nazi's coordinated their espionage activities. Other reasons for this suspicion include the consideration that Grobart had a passport and was once expelled from Cuba under the name of Otto Modley. Gorbart was quite short a Cuban photo shows him very much smaller than Castro (6' 1") or so thus to a tall person he would be or technically since his proportions were “normal” midget-like and it is difficult to imagine such a Nazi spy or even working for Admiral Canaris (BTW Otto Katz was too tall for this role). This Otto Ott also frequented the Carreño building where many Spanish Republicans (often communists) hung out. Then it seems Otto Ott disappeared from Cuba and judging by google searches from the face of the earthm although apparently a place called “Burdel de Otto” survived at least until 1959. Then Fabio Grobart survived Stalin's purges, while Otto Katz (far more linked to Jewish intellectuals) was hung by Stalin in 1952. What ever Grobart was a bad Jew and only represented a minority among Cuban Jews...... However, there is a problem there is a certain Israeli Mossad (his name escapes me) who has lived and invested in Cuba, and it is my understanding recently was in the Israeli cabinet......take care and be well Larry Daley On Thu, 5 Apr 2007, Myles Kantor wrote: Date: Thu, 5 Apr 2007 21:45:08 -0400 > From: Myles Kantor > To: "" > Subject: Re: Fabio Grobart Re: When Cuba Was A Nation Of Immigrants Hi Larry, > First off, this is an extremely interesting paper. I've only skimmed it but will read it more carefully soon. Anti-Semites will seize upon any material that could help their "cause," this material included. That said, your conscientious orientation is clear in the paper; this subject is of much scholarly significance; and facts are facts. I'm uncomfortable recommending against scholarship on the grounds that it might be abused by nefarious elements. > On a related note, this subject reminds me of Norman Podhoretz's reference to "the fact...that revolutionaries of Jewish origin played so important a role in bringing Communism to Russia" (Commentary, June 1985). I wouldn't be surprised if a similar disproportion existed in Cuba, though it seems many Cuban Jews were part of the bourgeoisie, so maybe not. Then there's that issue about Castro possibly coming from converso ancestry, not sure if my recollection is right on this. Best, > Myles On 4/5/07,> wrote: Myles: I am preparing a paper for Association Study of the Cuban Economy in Miami this year (It was not accepted this year LD). The title is: The central role of Fabio Grobart in the implementation and imposition of statist socialist economic theory on Cuba. Fabio Grobart was apparently one of the few Jews who remained in Cuba during the Castro years, and it is said he recruited Castro as communist in 1948. Now the last thing I want to do is to allow such to be used by anti-Semites, thus I would appreciate if it you have time to read it and check to make sure that such cannot be inferred in any way. Thank you for your time and attention >> Larry When Cuba Was A Nation Of Immigrants >> > Posted by Myles Kantor April 5, 2007 >> >> > >> > In response to my post on the conflict between Cuba and Sweden, Pureplay Press publisher David Landau notes: "The truth is that Cuba used to be a nation of immigrants before Castro took over; but then the regime's policies turned Cuba into a nation of emigrants." >> > The fate of Cuba's Jewish population illustrates this key point. Before 1959, Cuba had approximately 12,000 Jews who immigrated mostly during the 20th century. Over 90% of that population is gone thanks to the Castro's regime's totalitarian anti-Semitism. >> > When immigration ceases and emigration sky rockets, it's reasonable to infer that awful shit is happening in a country.Karol, K. S. (Translated from the French by Arnold Pomerans) 1970 Guerrillas in Power. The course of the Cuban revolution. Hill & Wang New York. (A review is available in Hispanic American Historical Review, 51, (4) (Nov., 1971) pp. 670-674. This author was educated as a communist and it shows. Footnote 114 on p. 174 ends with”…On the day of victory the human material was politically immature, even on admission of many veterans, and this explains why so many guerrilleros later defected.” In other words El Llano rebels were not communists nor were most of those in the Sierra; thus by definition sooner or later they would be candidates for purges by Fidel, Guevara and Raul
Kent, Sherman (3/24/1966, released 8/26/1992, accessed 2-25-07) Castro, Model 1966 Special Memorandum No. 4-66 CIA Case Number: EO-1991-00235 p. 5. Accessed at Electronic reading room “He (Castro) has expressed outrage, moreover, at the introduction of US military power to oppose the Communist advance in Vietnam, in recent months (date 3/24/1966, he has repeatedly proclaimed that he would be willing to supply military equipment and volunteers from Cuba to aid Hanoi and the Viet Cong.”
Koch, Stephen. 1994 (2004 edition) Double Lives. Enigma Press, New York ISBN 1929631200 103-104, 346-349 and others. From 103 " He (Otto Katz) is known to have worked closely there (Mexico City) with the long time NKVD chieftain Umansky, spending the war (WW II) much involved in Soviet operations within the United States and the Caribbean, working among other things with Fidel Castro's predecessor, Fulgencio Batista. Batista was at this time much admired and promoted by the left, and Katz was empowered to make Batista grand offers on behalf of the Soviet Union if Batista would enter Stalin's sphere of influence. (footnoted to Otto Katz, FOIA dossier #65-9266)
Kohan, Néstor, (accessed 4-9-07) (Prologue by Michael Löwery and Armando Hart Dávalos) Ni Calco ni copia Ensayos sobre el marxismo argentino y latino americano. Apparently Cuban government authorized work footnote 25 p. 123 implicates Vittorio Vidali, famous stalinist assassin.
Kortegaard, Bert (accessed 3-2-07) M3A1 Grease Gun with 30 Round Magazine. The Korean War
Kozolchyk, Boris 1966 (last accessed 1-14-07) The political biographies of three Castro officials. Memorandum RM-4994-RC
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Leonard, Ron and Patrick McKeand (accessed 2-25-06) "Tropic Lightning" History-Vietnam In the Beginning 1965. 25th Aviation Battallion “ On 18 April 1967, the 1st Brigade terminated its participation in Operation Makalapa, and returned to Cu Chi Base Camp. The 2nd Brigade continued combat assaults by the 1st Battalion, 27th Infantry in the area until 21 April, at which time Operatation Makalapa was concluded. Division totals for the 35 day long operation were: the capture of 13 Chicom carbines, three Browning sug-machine guns (sic), 16 Thompson machine guns, two French rifles, two light machine guns, one Russian sub-machine gun, one Mauser rifle, one Enfield rifle, 13 M-1 rifles, one Russian carbine, eight Chicom rifles, 15 M-3 submachine guns, three ANPRC-10 radios, one French light machine gun, two 81mm mortars, two 57mm recoilless rifles, three 60mm mortars, two 75mm recoilless rifles, one Browning submachine gun, four shotguns, 50 60mm mortar rounds, two M-60 machinegun tripods, seven viet Cong gas masks, 151 pounds of documents, 104 pounds of medical supplies, 1.521 hand grenades, 10,854 rounds of small arms ammunition, 151 claymore mines, eight pounds of Viet cong uniforms, five civilian radios, 100 gallons of gasoline, 50 gallons of diesel fuel, 15 gallons of motor oil, 50 pounds of black powder, 5.5 tons of rice, one outboard motor, and one barber kit.”
Levins, Richard 2006 How Cuba is going ecological Footnote 2 The Cuban Speleological Society was organized by teen age boys from Havana who loved exploring the countryside. They began as a Boy Scout troop but broke away when they decided that the Boy Scouts were a conservative, militaristic organization dominated by the United States. The geographer Antonio Nuñez Jimenez was a member, and introduced Fidel Castro to cave exploration in the early years. The Society continued as a small ecology-minded NGO Department of Population and International Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston MA 02115 and Institute of Ecology and Systematics, Boyeros, Havana, Cuba
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Martín, Corona Jerez (accessed 5/27/2007) Moncada 50 Bayamo otra vez “Añade que luego las unió a otras fotos relacionadas con los acontecimientos del 26 de julio en Bayamo, para un reportaje escrito por su colega local Rubén Castillo Ramos, pero la revista Bohemia no pudo publicarlo hasta 1961.” This could, or perhaps not be taken with the above to imply that Ruben Castillo Ramos, apparently a communist who could only show his head as such until 1961, had something to do with the attack on the Bayamo cuartel.
Martínez Triay, Alina 2005 (accessed 4-4-07) Simiente fecunda del Partido de Fidel. Suplemento Historico. Trabajadores 16 de agosto 2005 HISTORIA/revolucion/simiente.htm ” El joven polaco …El peculiar y pausado acento extranjero de Fabio en la presentación del Primer Secretario, se escucha en el plenario como un enlace entre los viejos y los nuevos tiempos”
Massón Sena, Caridad 2004 (accessed 6-9-07) Dos visiones sobre el nacionalismo y las alianzas: Mella y Villena. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Cultura Cubana “Juan Marinello”. La Habana, Cuba. “ Según explicara Fabio Grobart a posteriori: “ Esta miopía política se reflejó también en una errónea conclusión que los dirigentes del Partido sacaron, de la justa apreciación de que sustituir a Machado por un gobierno de la oposición burgués-terrateniente significaba dejar a Cuba en su estado de semicolonia y a las masas populares en la misma miseria y esclavitud y que únicamente un gobierno de trabajadores podía producir los cambios radicales que el país necesitaba /.../Dicha a conclusión fue profundamente falsa por ser mecánica, por no basarse en un análisis correcto del desarrollo dialéctico de la situación y, esencialmente, por no tener en cuenta que las masas revolucionarias, enardecidas por la victoria sobre Machado y orientadas en su acción por una justa política de su vanguardia marxista-leninista, sí podría asegurar los cambios profundos, es decir, la realización del programa agrario-antimperialista, por el cual abogaba y luchaba desde su fundación el Partido Comunista.22” “Un acuerdo de ese encuentro fue creación un buró del Caribe de la Comintern para la zona norte de América Latina, conformado en 1930 con sede Nueva York y una fuerte influencia del Partido Comunista de los Estados Unidos.”
Massón Sena, Caridad 2006 (accessed 5-12-07) Guiteras y el Partido Comunista. La Jirbilla La Habana. 25 de noviembre al 1ro de diciembre “En los intercambios constantes de opiniones dentro del CC del PCC, Fabio Grobart[11] expresó que era preciso avanzar con cuidado en el enfrentamiento a liberales, abecedarios, apristas y guiteristas, sosteniendo que su preocupación mayor estaba en la actuación del secretario de Gobernación pues había lanzado la consigna de crear cooperativas diciendo que ese programa era copiado de la URSS. Y efectivamente, el 7 de diciembre Guiteras anunció que el reparto de 10 mil caballerías de tierra que pensaba realizar no se haría en calidad de propiedad, sino como usufructo, “para evitar la formación de la pequeña burguesía rural, los Kulaks>, tan combatidos por la táctica soviética, que ensayarían granjas cooperativas, para poner los recursos de la maquinaria agrícola al servicio de las colectividades de campesinos”.[12] Aún así los representantes del Buró del Caribe seguían pensando que era erróneo creer en el gobierno y, por tanto, aceptar sus treguas, incluso en momentos en que Guiteras había ofrecido al PCC cien plazas laborales dentro de la Policía Nacional, trataba de crear una milicia armada obrera y luego autorizaba la celebración del IV Congreso Nacional Obrero en enero de 1934. [13]” Reference [11] Abraham Grobart (Fabio, Junger Simhovitz, Otto Morley). Obrero polaco radicado en Cuba, fundador del PCC y miembro de su CC en 1932, fue deportado y regresó a la isla a la caída de Machado. Ocupó la responsabilidad de organizador del PCC desde 1936 hasta 1947. En 1951 tuvo que irse a Europa. Integró el CC del nuevo PCC en 1965, fue Diputado a la Asamblea Nacional y Presidente del Instituto de Historia. Murió el 21 de octubre de 1994.
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Milanés Lolo 1999 (accessed 5-15-07) Cubanos en la guerra civil. http://cubanosenlaguerracivil. blogspot. com/feeds/posts/default “Con Nicolau en España Víctor Pina rendía cuentas de su trabajo a Fabio Grobart, un polaco exiliado que fue uno de los impulsores del primer Partido Comunista en Cuba y que en este momento actuaba como Secretario de Organización, siendo el hombre clave en las relaciones con la Komintern. Según el relato de Víctor Pina a Alberto Alfonso Bello publicado en su libro "Cuba en España", era Grobart quien les suministraba los fondos necesarios para actuar, siendo Asela Jiménez la administradora de estos fondos con los que sufragar todo lo relativo a los voluntarios. Durante el tiempo (1937-April May 1938) en que actuó este equipo lo hizo cambiando constantemente de lugar. Alquilaron un vehículo en la calle Zanja de la capital del cual se encargaría "Blanquito", un experto escolta y chofer. Víctor Pina sería apresado en Santiago de Cuba cuando realizaba un contacto con cuatro ex oficiales del disuelto ejercito nacional…” “Resulta que cuando yo (entrevista realizada a Casimiro Jiménez Medina) decidí pelear en España el organizador del partido era Fabio Grobart y el decía que yo era muy activo y que hacía falta aquí. Mi primera intención fue la de irme pero el partido me hizo responsable del reclutamiento en la provincia, ” “En 1938 se legalizan todos los partidos políticos incluido el Partido Comunista Cubano y a finales de 1939 se dan los pasos para normalizar la situación de las Instituciones cubanas. ” “. Fabio llegó a subir a la cubierta del barco para pedirme que no me (Casimiro Jiménez Medina) marchara pero le dije que ya había tomado la decisión de pelear en España. Fué de las pocas veces en mi vida de militante que fui indisciplinado pero por fortuna no me expulsaron del partido”
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Morales García, Yordanis, Enrique Almaguer Manganelly and staff Municipio de Niquero 2007a (Accessed 6-14-07) Reseña Histórica del Municipio. Portada de la Libertad (Niquero) Jueves 29 de Marzo, 2007 “Después de la Huelga de 1912 el movimiento obrero continuó tomando auge, esto tiene su expresión mas alta en la fundación del Partido Comunista de Cuba, el 19 de septiembre de 1929, en el Cayo la Uva, siendo su secretario Beremundo González....Existían tres grandes latifundios: el de la familia Castillo con 523 caballerías de tierra; el del Central Niquero S.A. con mas de 2 000 caballerías de tierra pertenecientes al magnate azucarero Julio Lobo Alabama, y el latifundio de los Núñez Beatty con 1 239,85 caballerías en la zona de Belic.”
Morales García, Yordanis, Enrique Almaguer Manganelly and staff Municipio de Niquero 2007b (Last accessed 6-14-07) Personalidades de la historia en Niquero. Portada de la Libertad (Niquero). Jueves 29 de Marzo, 2007 “Dominador de la Guardia Diéguez Coronel de la Guerra de Independencia. Se alzó el 24 de febrero de 1895 en Niquero. José Alonso Rivero (Chongo) Teniente coronel de la Guerra de Independencia. Se alzó el 24 de febrero de 1895 en Niquero. Tuvo participación decisiva en el Combate de Peralejo con su oportuna llegada al frente de la caballería de Gua. (Grandfather must have been among them)…Agustín Martín Veloz Manzanillero, impulsor de las ideas socialistas en Niquero. Digirió la Huelga de 1912.”
Morfa Vilarño, Hilario 2006 (accessed 3-1-07) Diario de un alzado parte dos viernes 30 de junio, 2006 “Alli después de unas palabras le enseñé la manera de tirar con la metralleta y le dije: bueno, a la noche te llevo para donde está Estrada, que estaba muy desarmado y triste pues ya sabía el fracaso de Girón cosa que el me había pronosticado antes y me dijo otra vez : ¿ no te lo dije entonces ? Yo le dije: bueno yo pensaba que los americanos iban a ayudar y me contestó : muchacho tú eres bobo, tú no ves que los americanos sabian que Fidel Castro, Raúl, el Ché, William Galvez, Felix Torres y todos los cuadros de la revolucion eran del Partido Socialista Popular, que ese es el mismo comunismo y lo que hicieron fue'apretar a Batista para que se fuera, y darle la oportunidad a estos bandidos. Mira, quítate eso de la cabeza los americanos nunca van a invadir aquí. “
Municipio de Yaguajay, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba (accessed 3-1-07) Principales personalidades del municipio (de Yaguajay G o o g l e's cache of “Felix Torres* González. Nació el 23 de junio de 1917 en Yaguajay. Ingreso al PSP en el 1934, en la finca Las Llanadas, donde se destacó en las lucha revolucionaria, fungía como secretario del frente campesino del PSP. Fue detenido en varias ocasiones por sospechoso, pero puesto en libertad. Se incorporó definitivamente a la lucha insurreccional en abril de *1958*, Comandando el Destacamento Guerrillero Máximo Gómez. En octubre del propio año recibió la columna invasora Antonio Maceo y gracias a su actividad de apoyo y preparación logra que esta se restablezca. Después del triunfo de la Revolución ocupó diferentes responsabilidades en lo político y en lo civil. Actualmente esta jubilado reside en la provincia Habana y milita en las filas del PCC.”
National museum of Republic Tatarstan staff (accessed 5-3-07) Literary-Memorial Museum of A.M. Gorky. Historical reference
Neira Vilas, Xosé 2006 Unha tocata necesaria, A Habana (1885-1889), Xunta de Galicia , ISBN: 844534203- p. 16 “O Instituto de Literatura e Lingüística da Habana, que hoxe dirixe a Dra. Nuria Gregori, cedeu en calidade de préstamo a colección de A Gaita Gallega, que radica na súa importante hemeroteca, para esta edición facsimilar. Direi cómo chegou alí este curioso periódico. A pouco de fundarmos a Sección Galega do Instituto, en decembro de 1969, Fabio Grobart, (destacado intelectual marxista que chegou mozo a Cuba, nos anos vinte, dende a súa Polonia natal) sabedor da nosa iniciativa, entregounos os números da primeira etapa da publicación. Os seis últimos proveñen de El Eco de Galicia, que os deu a coñecer, como xa foi dito, a xeito de suplemento intercalado”
New York Times Staff (accessed 1-13-07) 1994. Fabio Grobart, Veteran Cuban Communist, 89. Obit New York Times Archives October 24, 1994 Date: Mon, 10 Nov 1997 15:28:56 -0500 (EST)
Nocera, Raffaele 2005 (accessed 6-8-07) Ruptura con el eje y alineamiento con Estados Unidos. Chile durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Instituto de Historia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Historia No 38, Vol. II, julio-diciembre 2005: 397-444 ISSN 0073-2435 G o o g l e's cache of as retrieved on May 14, 2007 20:34:45 GMT. “Más tarde el embajador examinaba el caso de la estación radio clandestina descubierta en la isla de Cuba249. En relación a este episodio, Bowers volvía a repetir que "las instrucciones sobre el funcionamiento de esta estación clandestina hallada en Cuba provenían de una persona residente en Chile250. Barros Jarpa no consiguió superar sin daños la crisis que produjo el discurso de Sumner Wells y las sucesivas revelaciones acerca del espionaje en Chile251. Las críticas de los partidos de izquierda252, de algunos grupos radicales y de cuantos auspicaban ahora la ruptura de las relaciones con los países del Eje, le costaron el cargo al ministro253.” Footnotes “249 Se trataba del caso "Lunning". El 4 de septembre los servicios de intelligence estadounidenses habían interceptado un mensaje cifrado enviado de Santiago, por un cierto Carlos Robinson, a La Habana, a Enrique Lunning (cuyo verdadero nombre era Heinz August Lunnig). Este fue detenido por la policía cubana con la acusación de ser un espía alemán (AMRE, Fondo Barros Jarpa, Carpeta n. 20, memorándum, s.d). En la cárcel, Lunnig había confesado de haber recibido instrucciones, dinero e informaciones por un agente chileno que se llamaba Carlos Robinson. Basándose en estas afirmaciones, Robinson también detenido por la policía chilena, declarando, bajo interrogatorio, que era un agente al servicio del Eje y que su única tarea consistía en dar dinero a la red de espionaje alemán en La Habana, sin por esto tener algún contacto con Alemania (M. Barros van Buren, La diplomacia chilena en la segunda guerra mundial, cit. 167). 250 En una comunicación al embajador Michels, el ministro Barros Jarpa escribió que las noticias a disposición de los servicios investigadores chilenos "demuestran que las comunicaciones entre Lunning y Robinson se reducen a un telegrama del cual se infiere que ellos querían establecer una conexión a través de radios clandestinas, cosa que no sucedió por la acción de nuestra policía. La afirmación de Wells que las comunicaciones entre estos dos espías han provocado el hundimiento de barcos cerca de Brasil y del Caribe es completamente falsa". El ministro relevaba, luego, que el telegrama incriminado fechaba 4 de septiembre, mientras "el hundimiento de los barcos sucedieron el 15 y el 16 de agosto. Además […] no hay alguna información en esta comunicación sobre movimientos de barcos" (AMRE, Fondo Barros Jarpa, Carpeta n. 20, telegrama n. 406, 11 de octubre de 1942). 251 Casi depués de dos semanas del reajuste de gobierno y de su confirmación a la dirección del Ministerio del Interior, Morales Beltramí daba su versión de los hechos al nuevo ministro de RR.EE. Fernández, absolviendo completamente su persona por las acusaciones que el gobierno norteamericano había expresado (AMRE, ministro del Interior a ministro de RR.EE., 4 de noviembre de 1942, vol. 2011). Véase también AMRE, Ministerio de RR.EE. a embajada chilena en Washington, 12 de noviembre de 1942, vol. 2020. 252 El Mercurio, "La acción de grupos políticos ante el momento internacional", 20 de octubre de1942. 253 Al comunicar a todas las sedes diplomáticas chilenas al extranjero, la conclusión de su mandato, el ministro afirmaba que "el cambio de titular de esta cartera significará la ruptura de relaciones con las potencias del Eje a corto plazo" (AMRE, Fondo Barros Jarpa, Carpeta n. 20, 21 de octubre 1942). El 22 de octubre el embajador Tobías Barros Ortiz, expresando a Barros Jarpa su solidaridad, volvía a confirmar de estar contrario al abandono de la neutralidad (AMRE, Fondo Barros Jarpa, Carpeta n. 21, telegrama del embajador chileno en Berlín Tobías Barros Ortiz a Barros Jarpa, 22 de octubre de 1942). La misma opinión la tenía Carlos Morla Lynch en Berna (ibidem, carta de Morla Lynch a Barros Jarpa, 24 de noviembre de 1942). ”
NSC (National Security Council) 1959 Briefing on Cuba January 14 1959 released 6-2-1998 (accessed 1-21-07) “3. Exiled Commies returning…11. Files of Batista’s Bureau for Repression of Communist Activities (BRAC) taken by Guevara to his fortress were “Commies” reported by CIA source to be active”

O'Brien, Thomas F. 1993. The Revolutionary Mission: American 98 (3. Jun., 1993), 765-785. “As the newly formed Communist Party with its national political ambitions replaced the abstentionist ararchosyndicalists as the leading force in the labor movement, it sought to build on this this coalescence of middle and working class instincts. In 1925 the Communist Anti-imperialist League argued that Cuba should be for Cubans.”
OEA/OAS Inter-American Commision on Human Rights. Organización de Estados Americanos (Organization of American Status) 1983. The situation of human rights in Cuba. Seventh Report OEA/Ser.L/V/II.61, Doc. 29 rev. 1 4 October 1983, Original: Spanish “19. On the allegation that they had had contact with the previous government, other publications such has El Crisol, Excelsior and El Mundo were closed, taken over or confiscated. Economic strangulation was also used to control the press: the newspaper El pais was forced to close when its clients, industries and businesses, withdrew their advertising under pressure from governmental authorities. In the face of these campaigns instigated by official or semiofficial authorities, only two large newspapers were able to survive, Prensa Libre and Diario de la Marina, but on May 10, 1960, the day before the latter published a letter signed by 300 workers and expressing their solidarity with the newspaper’s management, an armed group occupied their offices while the police refused to protect them. A few days later, a group of communist workers and armed militia men broke into the offices of Prensa Libre to prevent publication of an editorial which criticized the Government; the director refused to accept the demand, was threatened and left without the protection of the authorities, and was forced to seek asylum in the Embassy of Panama. Forced by similar events, Bohemia, the magazine with the highest circulation in Latin America, soon also closed, and its director, who had distinguished himself in fighting against the Government of Batista, was forced to take refuge in the Embassy of Venezuela. 20. Radio and television stations suffered a similar fate. Station CMQ, the most powerful in the country, was taken over by the Ministry of Labor on grounds of a labor conflict. In order to “consolidate the revolution and guide the people”, and agency called Frente Independiente de Emisoras Libres (FIDEL) (independent Front of Free Broadcasters) was created, and by various methods succeeded in subduing the remaining radio and television stations.”
Organizacion Autentica staff (accessed 1-21-07) Capitán José J. Castaño Quevedo, Martír. Guamá
Osherowitz, Simon (translated by Ronald M. Miller, accessed 3-13-07) The History of Rubezhevichi. JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project. “Behind the bridge on the way to Simkovich, one Avraham, the blacksmith lived. He was a Jew who was without both his feet. …. After the First World War an excitement raged among the Jewish youth of the City (of Rubezhevichi L.D.). They began looking elsewhere, going far away. Some of them crossed the border and went into Russia. Others emigrated to Argentina, Cuba, Africa and the United States.”
Patka, Marcus (accessed 3-29-07) Chronik der kulturellen und politischen Veranstaltungen im mexikanischen Exil, organisiert von verschiedenen Organisationen: (1937–1949) “1941 28. Febr./FOARE: Entsendung einer Delegation zu Innenminister Miguel Alemán, um für weitere Visa zu intervenieren. Auf Vermittlung von Otto Katz und Leo Katz nimmt auch Bodo Uhse daran teil”
de Paz-Sánchez, Manuel 2001 Zona de Guerra, España y la revolución Cubana (1960-1962), Taller de Historia, Tenerife Gran Canaria ISBN 8479263644 pp. 189-199
de Paz Sánchez, Manuel 2007 Personal communicaiton: Wed, 23 May 2007 22:46:58 +0100 From: "[iso-8859-1] Manuel de Paz Sánchez" “Masferrer como sabe estuvo en la guerra de España. Siempre fue antifranquista, incluso cuando estuvo tan próximo a Batista. Yo creo que Hemingway y él podían hablar mucho de la guerra civil española….Muchos saludos, Mdepaz
Perez, J. 2000 (accessed 3-15-07) Cuba, 1925. Nacimiento del partido comunista cubano. (PPC). "Cuba Digital" Subject: Conozca la verdadera historia de Cuba ( 2 ) Date: Tue, 05 Sep 2000
Pérez Leira, Lois 2004 (accessed 3-14-07) Xosé Rego López, un verdadeiro dirixente obreiro. Actualidade / Biografía VolverVigo, 23 de xullo de 2004 Apparently Grobart was expelled as a foreign worker by Machado in 1930 under the name of Otto Modley “A política de terror antiobreiro da tiranía de Gerardo Machado de 1925 a 1933 significou a detención e expulsión de centenares de activistas estranxeiros. Esta situación leva ao movemento obreiro cubano a enviarlle unha carta ao presidente Machado para que parara as expulsións de traballadores estranxeiros.….Otto Modley, detido na mesma causa e na mesma data.”
Prieres, Manuel 2006 (accessed 3-1-07) La llegada del Che Guevara a Las Villas. La Puntilla Jun 20 2006, “Asimismo la mayoría de los cabecillas guerrilleros operando en Las Villas se unirán también a la borrachera de despojo, maltratos y humillaciones promovida por Guevara, siendo Camilo Cienfuegos uno de tantos junto al argentino y a quien ya el comunista villareño Felix Torres se le había unido.”
Pudlow, Jan 2003 (updated 2005, last accessed l3-5-07) Chesterfield Smith: America's Lawyer The Florida Bar Journal November LXXVII number 10) cache of as retrieved on Jan 31, 2007 06:38:47 GMT. “…..The pair split up when Smith was sent to the 94th Infantry Division, and Jones was assigned to the 95th. While Smith’s division was in the thick of the war, fighting in the Battle of the Bulge, Jones’ division held a defensive position. Jones and Smith were playing out the war in dramatically different arenas, until their paths crossed in Germany one snowy January morning. Jones had taken over the burgomaster’s house and was just getting out of bed when his first sergeant informed him another artillery outfit had come to town. “I walked through the snow banks and saw the vehicles in the village. I asked, ‘Who’s in charge?’ And someone said, ‘Well, Capt. Smith is around here somewhere.’ “It was Harvey Smith. His outfit was going south. I was getting ready to go north. We visited for 15 minutes, and I didn’t see him again. What he did was give me a Browning submachine gun. I carried a pistol and a MI rifle. He gave me a Browning automatic 45-caliber submachine gun. I took it and carried it the rest of the war.” By the time Smith got out of the service in the fall of 1945, he had been awarded a Bronze Star and a Purple Heart, and was later promoted to major. Sandy D’Alemberte, former president of the ABA and Florida State University, tells of the time he was at a gathering of Smith’s oldest friends. Though Smith kept a framed silk map of France, once sewn inside his battle jacket, on his office wall, he never talked much about his war days. But among his old buddies, he shared a few war stories while smoking big cigars and sipping strong drinks.”
Radosh, Ronald and Allis Radosh 2006 Red Star Over Hollywood: The Film Colony's Long Romance with the Left. Encounter Books, New York; New Ed edition (July 25, 2006) ISBN-10: 1594031460
Raffy, Serge 2004 Castro, el desleal (Castro the Deceitful) Aguilar Mexico D. F. ISBN-10 1598205846, ISBN-13 978-1598205848
Ravines, Eudocio 1951 The Yenan way Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. Reliable anonymous source 2007 Personal communication. Fabian was the "nome de guerre" de Cesar Escalante Dellundé. Another thing, you mentioned Vivés, Juan (which is a pseudonym)… a nephew of late President Osvaldo Dorticós and lives in France. Vives was part of the Seguridad del Estado. As Celia Sanchez Manduley's nephew (not by blood), he acted as a courier for her and her buying of thousand of items she wanted, like perfume and so on. He says he brought Marquitos back from Checoslovaquia by orders of Raul Castro. At least he alleges it. He wrote a book "El Magnifico", which was a nickname for a Directorate captain, Joaquín Milanés, later imprisoned for allegedly robbing a bank back in the 60s. Vives is knowledgeable of things Cuban and its revolution. He also states that Dorticos was "suicidado" that he did not commit suicide himself. In regards to Grobart I remember distinctly back in 1961 in Wajay, where there was a children's school for orphans that Cmdt. Humberto Castelló was speaking to Armando Interián, once a famous name within the Communist Party ranks and Castelló referred to Grobart as the "Maestro del Partido, que fue educado bajo su orientación", or similar words. Also it is a distortion of history to refer to Anibal Escalante as founder of a "partido democrático" as Bofill (two "ff"s) does. There are some ex-members of the Communist Party that long for the forgotten and some times revered ex "dirigentes" del PSP. It
Resemius, Wayne (last updated 8-14-95, accessed 2-25-07) In: Our Friends Who Died In Vietnam The Faces of the 176th Assault Helicopter Company. As You Were!
Reyes, Eiseo (as told to Rodolfo Rodríguez Zaldivar) 1959. Desde La Sierra Maestra hasta las Villas. Bohemia 51 (2 Enero 11) 32-34, 161-162 Photograph on p.34 by Tony Martín, back row second from the left with Thompson (“metralleta Browning”) appears to be a young Vivés.
Riera, Mario 1955. Cuba Política 1899-1956 Imprenta Modelo, Havana. In 1948 pp 569-570 elections Anibal Escalante Dellundé wins a seat as one of 18 representatives for the Province of Havana with 15,178 votes, every other elected representative of Carlos Prio’s party had more votes. Even though the field was much divided the total vote for PSP (communist) was miniscule.
Rojas Blaquier, Angelina 2006 (accessed 1-19-07) El Partido de los nuevos tiempos A 80 años de la fundación del primer Partido Comunista de Cuba Cuba Socialista. Revista Teórica y Política. Editada por el Comité Central del Partido Comunista de Cuba. Julio/2006 “This is a confused set of truths half-truths and lies, that portrays the communists in Cuban history far larger than life, and ten times more important.”
Ros, Enrique 1994 (1998) Giron la verdadera historia. Ediciones Universales (Colección Cuba y sus jueces) third edition Miami ISBN 0-89729-738-5
Rosales García, Juana 2005 (accessed 3-25-07) Revolución y antimperialismo en Antonio Guiteras. Cuba Socialista. Revista Teórica y Política. Editada por el Comité Central del Partido Comunista de Cuba. (founded by Fabio Grobart) May 2005 “...Su desencuentro político con los principales cuadros del primer partido comunista[32], solo puede entenderse como consecuencia del adverso y contradictorio escenario de entonces, pero esta era una barrera que ya tenía para Guiteras su solución a plazo histórico. Comprendía como la desunión existente hasta entonces, era la causa principal de la debilidad de la izquierda en el país. Y en la última entrevista a que hemos hecho referencia, manifestaba que “quizás por primera vez en Cuba, se aúnan elementos y grupos que dentro de una misma ideología representan matices distinto...”.
Salgado Hernández, José Pedro 2005 Yara entre 1940-1958 Abstract published in “Luz de Yara” Museo Municipal Yara, (Old Oriente Province) G o o g l e's cache of as retrieved on Oct 16, 2005 06:57:39 GMT “Estas luchas no se iniciaron netamente en esta década, pues tuvo sus antecedentes en los años 30 y 40 con las luchas campesinas en Yara arriba y el Movimiento Comunista en Yara y Veguitas, así como las luchas en el sector azucarero enfrentándose a la explotación de la compañía Estrada Palma Sugar Company, la cual administraba a Sofía y al Estrada Palma. Estas actividades revolucionarias se fueron extendiendo hacia otros sectores como por ejemplo el arroz que tomó fuerza a partir de 1942.”
Sánchez Porro, Reinaldo 1996 (accessed 5-12-07) Tradición y modernidad: Los judíos en La Habana, Cuadernos de Historia Contemporánea. No 18 Servicio de publicaciones, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 1966 Universidad de la Habana Page 180 Reference 11 “El veterano luchador comunista e investigador nació en Polonia en 1905. A los 17 años ingresó en la Liga Juvenil Comunista y bajo una fuerte persecución debió abandonar ilegalmente su país en 1924 para trasladarse a Cuba como emigrado político. Aquí se integró a la Agrupación Comunista de La Habana y trabajó en sastrerías. Participando en la fundación del Partido Comunista de Cuba en 1925. Miembro reiterado del Comité Central del Partido Comunista de Cuba y de la Asamblea Nacional, Fabio Grobart presidió el Instituto de Historia del Movimiento Comunista y de la Revolución Socialista de Cuba desde su fundación en 1973.” Page 180 Mentions Noske Yalob a Polish communist militant who is said thrown to the sharks in 1928. Page 188 Mentions the tensions between Jewish businessmen such as David Bliss and Jewish communists such as Noske Yalob. Julio Lobo is mentioned as a very successful Cuban businessman from WWII to 1959. a very successful Cuban businessman from WWII to 1959. No mention is made of the successful general strike of 1933 which, although the communist party betrayed it, contributed very considerable to the overthrow of Machado.
Schonhaut Hirshan, Marjorie 1997 (accessed 1-18-07) discussing “Fiddler on the roof” and Mendele, 1997 Yiddish literature and language, 6.224 on February 11, 1997 “Sholem Yankev traveled extensively with a beggar named Abraham (or Avreml) Khromoy, who had returned from faraway places with wonderful adventurous tales of lands flowing with milk and honey.”
Schelchkov, Andrei 2002 (accessed 5-4-07) Los estudios latinoamericanos en Rusia (y en la URSS) Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe 72, abril de 2002, 205-220 “Una de las esferas importantes de los estudios latinoamericanos en la Rusia actual son las investigaciones de los archivos de la Internacional Comunista, de problemas de los movimientos de izquierda y de historia política. En 1998 el Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos publicó una compilación de documentos de dicho archivo, con vastos comentarios y notas: La Internacional Comunista y América Latina. Después de ésta ha continuado publicando documentos raros e interesantes de dicho archivo en las páginas del Almanaque histórico latinoamericano editado por el Instituto de Historia Universal ( almanakh 2000 No. 1, 2001 No. 2). L. Kheifetz editó un diccionario biográfico de los líderes del Komintern en América Latina (Kheifetz 2000). I. Yanchuk, N. Kalmikov y A. Schelchkov publicaron varios trabajos dedicados a temas del Komintern (Latinskaia Amerika 1994, No. 5, 1996, No. 5, 1997 No. 7). Hoy, los autores tienen acceso a documentos únicos del archivo de la IC y la posibilidad de análisis objetivos, desideologizados de acontecimientos y procesos relacionados con el movimiento comunista. No obstante, todavía nos hallamos lejos de tal situación: algunos historiadores han caído en la trampa del sensacionalismo, como por ejemplo Kheifetz, que insinúa la participación de los líderes del partido comunista de Cuba en el asesinato de Mella ( istoricheskii almanakh 2001 No. 2); otros investigadores, y no solamente rusos, como demostró la discusión en la sección de Historia del Komintern realizada durante el congreso de la FIEALC en Moscú en 2001, analizan los problemas de estetema (sic) desde un punto de vista demasiado doctrinario, especulando sobre si la política de la IC había sido suficientemente ‘marxista y no dogmática’. Este contenido de la discusión es una vía poco fructífera para investigaciones que tengan como objetivo descubrir la realidad histórica objetiva.”
Shuyun, Sun 2006 The Long March. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00719479-X
Simeon, Roberto 2002 (accessed 6-11-07) Enfrentamiento a la contrarrevolución. La muerte de Sandalio. Páginas del movimiento sindical cubano: Década del 30. 2002-9-7 Cuba Nuestra Digital “Sandalio Junco fue asesinado en la conmemoración del séptimo aniversario de la muerte de Antonio Guitera: el 8 de Mayo de 1941.”
Simon, Luis, "Mis relaciones con el Che Guevara," Cuadernos (Paris), 60, mayo 1962 pp. 35-42.
Sierra, J. A. (last accessed 1-23-07) Timetable history of Cuba. After the revolution. Some dates in this compendium may be slightly off.
Solano, Wilebaldo 1974 (2006, accessed 2-24-07) The Spanish Revolution The Life of Andreu Nin. Fundación Andreu Nin, ILP Leeds
Soler Martínez, Rafael 1998 (accessed 6-11-07) Los orígenes del trotskismo en Cuba Los primeros trotskistas cubanos En Defensa del Marxismo (EDM) Number 20 May 1998 “Sandalio Junco era un dirigente del PC que desde las filas sindicales había participado en la lucha contra Machado y actuado desde los primeros meses de 1928, junto a Julio Antonio Mella y otros exiliados cubanos en las actividades revolucionarias en México....En la Unión Soviética entró en contacto con la ideas trotskistas bajo la influencia del español Andrés Nin, que había sido dirigente de la ISR, se había vinculado con la Oposición de Izquierda rusa, y más tarde sería uno de los principales dirigentes del movimiento trotskista en España y una de las figuras más destacadas del trotskismo internacional. De esta forma, cuando en los primeros meses de 1932 Sandalio Junco regresa a Cuba, lo hace como un trotskista convencido (ref 5).”
Solera, Robert 2007 personal communication. Date: Sat, 5 May 2007 09:41:45 -0400 From: nellsol1 To: Larry Daley Subject: Re: Fabio Grobart Larry: This is the last "gabinete" that Machado had after being elected for the second time: Mayo 20 El nuevo gabinete de Machado se estrenó con 3 generales: José B. Alemán, Instrucción Pública; Carlos M. de Rojas, Guerra y Marina; y Eugenio Molinet, Agricultura. También formó parte del nuevo equipo Francisco María Fernández, Sanidad; Manuel de J. Delgado, Gobernación; Mario Ruiz Mesa, Hacienda; Rafael Sánchez Aballí, Comunicaciones; Ricardo Herrera, Presidencia; Rafael Martínez Ortiz, Estado, ratificándose en Obras Públicas y Justicia a Carlos Miguel de Céspedes y Jesús M. Barraqué. In the first one Viriato Gutierrez, was the Secretario de la Presidencia. He was a famous millionaire who even had a beach named after him near or about Santa Fe, going to Mariel. Herrera must be of the famous Cuba family that owned la Tropical (Julito Blanco Herrera). Viriato Gutierrez second surname (i think) was Falla from the sugar millionaires Falla Gutierrez (Eutimio, Laureano et al,). Hope this will help you pinpoint Grobart acquaintances in high echelon levels….Life is too brief to waste it!
Solera, Robert 2007 Personal communication Subject: Re: En su apelacion "Marquito" habla de Grobart From: "nellsol1" Date: Wed, June 6, 2007 2:20 pm To: "Larry Daley" “Larry: No creo que Marquitos haya estado en Checoslovaquia antes de 1959. Vi una foto que tenia Orlando Leal?? en Mexico donde Marquitos estaba en un cabaret con Ordoqui y la Buchaca antes de 1959. Lo de Camilo me consta pues asi lo dicen las fuentes e incluso hay la anecdota que cuando estaba en La Cabana, detenido, el Gallego "El Loco" Blanco --luego involucrado en un presunto atentado a Fidel con Cubelas junto al luego general muerto en Angola, Diaz Arguelles se ofrecieron a fusilarlo y dirigir el peloton de fusilamiento. Marquitos estuvo en una "gaveta" y cuando ya habian desistido de que confesara se quebro y la Seguridad estando yo en Cuba Luego fue el "big shot" en Checoslovaquia y era el que repartia los dolares cuando pasaban por ahi las delegaciones rumbo al Telon de Acero. R”” Wed, June 6, 2007 8:25 am “Larry el (Marcos) fue a Mexico tras asilarse en la Embajada del Brasil antes de la revolucion. De alli fue a la Argentina y luego a Costa Rica y Mexico. El viaje a Praga es posterior a ser detenido en la Cabana por ordenes de Camilo Cienfuegos. Luego le dieron una beca a Checoslovaquia y alli lo apresaron y llevaron a Cuba. Segun Juan Vives, el participo en su captura y traslado por orden de Raul Castro.”
Soto, Lionel 1977 La revolución del 33, Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, La Habana, Volume II, p. 8. GET
Staff of Nuestra Identidad 2005 (cache last accessed 5-18-07) Historia, costumbres y tradiciones de nuestro territorio "Buey Arriba". Nuestra Identidad. G o o g l e's cache of as retrieved on Nov 23, 2005 02:21:45 GMT. “En la década del 40 Rogelio Recio Ramírez militante del Partido Comunista y fundador del Soviet de Mabay se instala en este territorio y el 1944 funda el primer sindicato de trabajadores de la minería en Buey Arriba, también se funda uno en las Minas de La Cristina del que responsabilizaron al lider a Conrado Enrrique y en el mismo año 1944 fundó el primer sindicato de recogedores de café estas y otras acciones constituyeron el cimiento de la embergadura que tomó la lucha insurrepcional en esta última etapa donde se destacaron hijos de este pueblo: Ricardo Medina, Argel Carbajal y Salustino de la Cruz Enrique los que agradecieron el pensamiento revolucionario sin tacha de Ernesto Guevara de la Serna, quién al frente de la columna 4 hizo de este teritorio un bastión inigualable para la lucha guerrillera, resaltando su victoria con el asalto al Cuartel de Bueycito, la creación de su primer campamento rebelde en El Hombrito: donde tuvo su segundo combate victorioso y posteriormente el de Altos de Conrado desde donde parte hacia La Mesa por razones estrategicas instalando la comandancia más completa del Ejército Rebelde con una infraestructura que le permitía sobrevivir en circunstancias tan difíciles, como fue la creación de una armería, panadería, escuela, hospital, carcel, tienda, hojalatería, el periódico el Cubano Libre, carpintería, combinado, salida al aire por primera vez la Radio Rebelde el 24 de febrero de 1958.”
Staff of “Che Guevara” (accessed 3-1-07) Through Santa Clara to Havana. Che Guevara (a Russian communist group, notice unusual spellings) ” The Partido Socialista Popular had a partisan detachment under the command of the Communist Felix Torres…..There is an entry in Camilo Cienfuegos' diary concerning Torres' detachment named after Maxнmo Gуmez (sic), a hero of the liberation war against the Spanish. The entry reads: "We arrived at a very well organised camp (in the Escambray zone) under the charge of Seсor Felix Torres. From the very start he demonstrated the utmost interest in cooperating with and aiding us. Soon after arriving we felt ourselves among brothers, as if in the Sierra Maestra. We were given the warmest welcome."”
Stokes, William S. 1951 The "Cuban Revolution" and the Presidential Elections of 1948. The Hispanic American Historical Review, 31 (1 Feb., 1951), 37-79.
Suarez Ramos, Felipa (accessed 1-13-07) Fabio Grobart en el movimiento sindical cubano, Suplemento Trabajadores 29 de agosto
Sueiro Rodríguez, Victoria Maria (accessed 3-11-07) Huellas y momentos cronológicos del exilio republicano español de 1939 en Cienfuegos. Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes p. 9 “El Dr. Chabás fue presentado a la sociedad cienfueguera en un acto celebrado en la Escuela de Comercio, presidido por el Dr. Felipe Silva Hernández las palabras de presentación corrieron a cargo del profesor Otto Meruelo” January 12, 1943
Super, John C., 2003 Interpretations of church and state in cuba, 1959-1961. Catholic Historical Review, 00088080, Jul 003, 89 (3)511-529 “. Then in the fall of 1959 Raúl Castro disbanded the Comandos Rurales (Rural Comandos), a group formed in February, 1959, to promote community development in the Sierra Maestra.( n26) By the end of the year, the regime also made efforts to control the Central de Trabajadores de Cuba (Cuban Labor Confederation), purging from its ranks members of Acción Católica.( n27)” “
Swiggum, S. and M. Kohli 1997-2007 (accessed 5-1-07) Ships description-L The Ships List “LEERDAM 1920, 8,854 gross tons, length 466ft x beam 58.2ft, two funnels, two masts, single screw, speed 13 knots, accommodation for 14-1st, 174-2nd and 800-3rd class passengers. Built by Nieuwe Waterweg, Schiedam, Holland, she was launched on 6th Dec.1920 for Holland America Line's Rotterdam - Cuba - Mexico service. 1934 laid up due to the depression, she was rebuilt with one funnel and accommodation for 30-cabin and 60-3rd class passengers. On 13th Oct.1934 she started her first Rotterdam - New York sailing and in 1940 came under Allied control until 1946 when she commenced Rotterdam - Baltimore sailings. Her last Baltimore - Rotterdam crossing was in Dec.1952 and she was then laid up at Rotterdam until 1954 when she was scrapped at Yokohama. [North Atlantic Seaway, vol.3,p.914 by N.R.P.Bonsor] [Merchant Fleets, vol.28 by Duncan Haws]
Szulc, Tad 1986 Fidel: A Critical Portrait. William Morrow, New York. ISBN 0688046452 p. 264 pp. 472-476. Szulc (apparently using Fabio Grobart as a/the source) describes the evolution of Castro’s hidden government developed first with consultation and or direction by Fabio Grobart starting in the first months of 1959. “Castro held most of these clandestine encounters at a hill top house in the fishing village of Cojima, some ten miles east of Havana. This house was lent to him for an indefinite period in March by Agustín Cruz, a former Orthodoxo Senator. Though the the first meetings took place in private homes. The large Cojímar villa overlooking the sea from a distance, was under heavy Rebel Army Guard [Company 6 of Column 1, lead by Orlando Rodríguez Puerta, who were there with Amelio Mojena and his former members of los “Escopeteros of Mojena” and the recovering wounded from the ambush at Central America supported by at least one armored car (see Larry Daley “Narrations of War in Cuba” (manuscript in progress rough drafts at see Chapter 30A The Cat Escapes Death], affording the maximum privacy. Fidel used it as a residence, alternating with Celia’s Vedado apartment, and the Hilton Penthouse, during the first years of the revolution. In his meeting with the Communists, Castro was always accompanied by the Che Guevara, Camilo Cienfuegos, Ramiro Valdés, and often by Raúl….” [Thus it seems that it was Ramiro Valdés (who I had remembered as a “slick city comandante, but now I see in memory as a severe grey-bearded face) who rebuked Mojena for not being sufficiently war tested, and Mojena (forgetting his mention in Castro’s dispatches at Guisa, and quite terrified) responded by murmuring about our suicide. I was warned never to visit again. See Daley immediately above)]. Szuc In: “Notes 1. Interviews and Conversations in Cuba” section p. 655 “Fabio Grobart, co-founder of the Cuban (Stalinist LD) Communist Party in 1925;member of the Central Committee; chairman of the Institute for the Study of Marxist-Leninist Movement in Cuba; Hero of the Cuban Revolution”
Tennant, G A. 1999 (accessed 3-30-07) Dissident Cuban Communism. The Case of Trotskyism, 1932-1965 Thesis , Submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of European Studies, University of Bradford Chapter 3. “While the official communist movement at the time explained the ‘error’ in terms of the Right opportunism of the PCC’s Central Committee,(133) at the root of the PCC’s accommodation with Machado was ultra-left hostility to a strike movement which it did not control. As Fabio Grobart stated in his explanation of the ‘error of August’, the “Party leaders concluded that, since it was impossible to replace Machado immediately by a revolutionary workers’ government, the struggle of the working class would only have the objective effect of aiding the bourgeois opposition to power.”(134) This ‘lesser evil’ thesis, which embodied the understanding that a weakened Machado was preferable to another stronger bourgeois substitute or direct U.S. intervention, was the basis for the decision to call on the workers to stop the strike.(135) It also hastened some internal argument within the PCC. Reflecting the degree of autonomy which the Cuban party still retained with respect to the Comintern, the international envoys in Cuba seem to have been against the decision to order a return to work but were over-ruled by the Central Committee of the PCC who stood behind the position of Martínez Villena.(136) The disagreement led to the removal from office of Jorge Vivó, the PCC’s General Secretary,(137) who had supported the foreign envoys, as well as hastening the dismissal of the Profintern’s envoy in Cuba, the Polish communist Mendel Michrowski (*Lowski).(138) Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Footnote 134 The actual role of Fabio Grobart (born Yunger Semjovich) in Cuban communism is a matter of some controversy. He arrived in Cuba from Poland at the age of nineteen just before the PCC was founded. Anti-communists have insisted that he was Moscow’s man in Havana thereafter. While it is doubtful that Grobart was actually sent to Cuba by the Comintern, certainly by the early 1930s, he was in Moscow working in the Comintern’s Latin American Secretariat before returning to Cuba”
Thomas, Gordon and Max Morgan Witts 1974 Voyage of the Damned. Stein and Day Publishers; 1st Edition, Stein and Day, Briarcliff Manor, New York ASIN: B000BKOCGM pp. 146-147
Time Staff 1960 (accessed 1-29-06) The Archbishop Speaks. Time Monday, May 30, 1960,9171,939669,00.html “Last week, when Castro labor goons followed up the seizure of the pro-Catholic daily Diario de la Marina by grabbing the independent Prensa Libre, Cuba's largest newspaper,…”
Time Staff 1960 (accessed 1-20-07) Castro's Growing Arms. Time Monday, Nov. 14, 1960,9171,711955-1,00.html
United States Department of State / Foreign relations of the United States diplomatic papers, 1944. Europe Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, pp. 801-1273 Volume IV (1944) p. 852 “There are ten Communist Party members in the Cuban Congress and the Communist Juan Marinello is Minister without portfolio in the Cabinet. The Party owns a radio station, a daily newspaper, a publishing house and will soon have a moving picture theater. The Party dominates the Cuban Confederation of Labor. Among Party leaders, Fabio Grobart (alias Abraham Sinovich), the Instructor-General of the Cuban Communist Party, and Blas Roca, Secretary-General, were trained in Moscow. … It is evident that the Soviet government placed a high value on establishing diplomatic relations with Cuba, for Dr. Concheso,21 first Cuban diplomat accredited to Moscow, was personally received by Marshal Stalin. It was Dr. Concheso's belief that he was the only foreign diplomat other than the American and British Ambassadors to whom Stalin had accorded this distinction. By conduct of Concheso sealed letters were exchanged between Stalin and President Batista.22 footnotes 21 Aurelio Fernández Concheso, Cuban Minister to the Soviet Union. 22 Col. Fulgencio Batista. “
Valdés Vivó, Raúl 2005 (accessed 1-19-06). Speech on the 80th anniversary of the foundation of the “first” Communist Party of Cuba given on August 16, 2005 Cuba Socialists October 2005, In this odd version of Cuban history the communist party took a far greater role than in reality, and all Cuban “heroes and martyrs” are falsely made to appear as communist related.
Velázquez, Ángel 2007 Cuban Regional Historiography during the Revolution (accessed 3-11-07) International Studies February 2007 Calendar "Cuban Regional Historiography during the Revolution" Luncheon lecture by Ángel Velázquez, Teacher, Miami Dade Public Schools. Mr. Velázquez is a graduate of the Universidad de Oriente in Santiago de Cuba, where he studied history and wrote a thesis on the “Movimiento Campesino de la Región Oriental de Cuba.” After working from 1987 to 1996 as museum researcher, from 1996 to 1998, Velázquez was professor of Cuban historiography and researcher for the Center for Regional Studies on Sierra Maestra and Guacanayabo at the Universidad Pedagógica in Oriente. During 1999 he worked as director of historical research at the “Oficina del Historiador” in the city of Santiago de Cuba. Velásquez has published several articles and the books Campechuela: Historia de un barrio cubano a fines del siglo XIX (Bayamo, Oriente: Ediciones Bayamo, 1989) and La hacienda ganadera de Bayamo (La Habana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1995). Sponsored by FIU's Cuban Research Institute (CRI). Lecture will be in Spanish. Space is limited. Call CRI at (305)348-1991 for more information. Date: Thursday, February 08, 2007 Time: 12:00pm Location: DM 353 Department: Latin American and Caribbean Center”
Vitale, Luis 1963 (last accessed 3-28-07) Phases of the Cuban Revolution. International Socialist Review, Spring pp. 41-45.
Vitale, Luís (accessed 6-5-07) Del nacionalismo al Neoliberalismo (1900-1990) Historia Social comparada de los Pueblos de América Latina Tomo III segunda parte p. 110 “Unos de los dirigentes principales de la Izquierda Comunista cubana fue Sandalio Junco, que había compartido el exilio con Mella…(Junco) provenía antes de su ingreso en el partido-de las filas anarcosindicalismo…”
Vivés, Juan (Pseudonym see reliable anonymous source) Translated to Spanish from 1981 Les Maîtres de Cuba. Opera Mundi, Paris by Zoraida Valcarcel) 1982 Los Amos de Cuba. EMCÉ Editores, Buenos Aires. ISBN 9500400758. Among other novel or odd information this author places Marcos Rodríguez Alfonso (Humbolt 7 informer) goes to Czechoslovakia two months after being allowed out of Cuba to go to Mexico (in 1957) before Batista fell p; (according to Juan Vives p. 134, afterwards he returned there as cultural attache in 1959 (same page). Early in 1959 Raul and the Che invite Grobart to come back to Cuba. This places Fabio Grobart traveling from Prague with Raul Castro to Moscow in 1959 p. 45-46. Even more intriguing it states on p. 46 that Vittorio Vidale was present in 1927 Cuba said to be one year prior to Grobart, this is at variance with other sources. And yet my reading suggests that the material is quite accurate within the influence of the circumstances of the author’s milieu
Vivés Ardisson, Juan Posted: 09 September 2006 (accessed 2-26-07) Fidel Castro Cuba Communisme France2 country:FR
Whitney, Robert 2000 (accessed 6-10-07) What do the People 'Think and Feel'? Mass Mobilisation and the Cuban Revolution of 1933 Journal of Iberian and Latin American Studies (JILAS) 3 (2) “Welles and his British colleagues might have wanted to blame the Communists for all this activity, and the CP itself often tried to claim it led these struggles. Yet the evidence clearly points to a more spontaneous and complex series of events than either the diplomats or the Communists were willing to acknowledge.”
Zayas-Bazán, Eduardo 2006 (accessed 5-27-06) El Perfil Psicológico de Fidel Castro
”Zabludow” (Accessed 5-14-07) Bialystok Children's Transport List from Theresenstadt to Auschwitz, DN/a 10/05/43 Possible relatives sent from Bailystock to Auschwitz

Photographs are taken from various sources, such as:
Cantón Navarro, José 2005 (accessed 4-6-07) The first (sic) Cuban Communist Party Bohemia Digital August 5, 2005 A CubaNews translation by Ana Portela. Edited by Robert Sandels and Walter Lippmann. Possibly short young person to the immediate right of Ruben Martinez Villena Photo legend “Ruben Martinez Villena reading the relevant document when the communists too leadership of the Cuban National workers Confederation (CNOC)” Compared with photo in Suarez Ramos, Felipa (accessed 1-13-07) Fabio Grobart (far older) en el movimiento sindical cubano, Suplemento Trabajadores 29 de agosto
21x14. 464 pgs. Fotos en b/n fuera de texto.(K3859*)
Martín, Alda Matilde (editor) 1985 Grobart, Fabio Un Forjador Eternamente Joven,, Editorial Gente Nueva. Havana.

Suarez Ramos (a accessed 1-13-07 )

Carbonell, Nestor T. 1989 And the Russians Stayed: The Sovietization of Cuba: A Personal Portrait. William Morrow & Co; New York ISBN-10 0688072135 ISBN-13: 978-0688072131


End Notes



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